Nuclear Holocausts Bibliography: C

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Caidin, Martin. Almost Midnight. New York: Morrow, 1971.
A gang of extortionists hijacks five atomic bombs and sets one off near San Bernardino in California as a demonstration. They demand one hundred million dollars ransom. The members of the gang are tracked down and captured or killed. The author has written over seventy books, mostly popular thrillers, several dealing with themes related to nuclear war. A note in this volume says: "From 1950 to 1954 Martin Caidin served as a nuclear warfare specialist for the state of New York. He analyzed the effects of nuclear and other weapons on potential targets in the United States."

___. The Long Night. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956.
A surprise strike hits over a hundred American cities. In the fictional city of Harrington, civil defense springs into action and succeeds in mitigating some of the effects of the disaster. The beginning describes the experiences of several individual citizens as they are hit by the bomb. The novel goes into great detail about the ensuing firestorm, which suffocates and then roasts most of those who have taken refuge in urban fallout shelters. A mob, panicked by fears that sick children may be contaminated with radioactivity, blocks a street along which an emergency vehicle bringing medical supplies is trying to travel. The policeman acting as guard remembers his revulsion at having to kill in Korea, but steels his will and kills two of the mob to clear the way. One subplot concerns a selfish young man who, obsessed with searching for his fiancee, has to be forced into relief work. Caidin denounces selfishness generally. Although the depiction of the effects of the bomb is powerful and effective if artless, the city recovers quickly, with water and power being soon restored. Comparisons are made with the resilience of Coventry and Hamburg after World War II. Over fourteen million Americans have died, but the last line affirms human resilience: ". . . this city lived." Compare with Philip Wylie's Tomorrow! and Dean Ing's Pulling Through.

___. The Mendelov Conspiracy. New York: Meredith, 1969. London: W. H. Allen, 1971. Rpt. as Encounter Three. New York: Pinnacle, 1978.

Caidin, Martin. Zoboa. New York: Baen, 1988.
A Muslim terrorist group hijacks four nuclear bombs. Three are recovered, but the fourth is set to go off in a blimp tethered at Cape Canaveral during a crucial Russian-American shuttle launch. A heroic pilot severs the cable with his plane so that the bomb bounds three miles in the air before it explodes, harmlessly. Reflects growing U.S. USSR cooperation by portraying the CIA and KGB working hand in hand.
A reporter becomes entangled in a conspiracy to force nuclear disarmament. Discs resembling the flying saucers of popular mythology are constructed and equipped with beams which detonate selected bombs and nuclear power plants all over the world, creating a public demand for their destruction. Afler millions have died in a series of explosions, Russia and the U.S. agree to disarm. When China is reluctant, they jointly threaten invasion.

Calisher, Hortense. "In the Absence of Angels" (originally in a slightly different form in The New Yorker, April 21, 1951). In The Absence of Angels. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951. London: Heinemann, 1953. Also in The Collected Stories of Hortense Calisher. New York: Arbor House, 1975.
In the conquered U.S., a rebellious poet arrested for her writings looks back over her life, trying to remember all she can about a childhood friend who is now to be her prosecutor. The only mention of nuclear weapons is this unscientific phrase: "using a missile whose rhythm they had learned from us, they cracked the city to the reactive dirt from which it had sprung." This may have been meant to suggest espionage such as was alleged in the Rosenberg case, although that is not clear here.

Campbell, John W[ood], Jr. "Cloak of Aesir" (Astounding, March 1939). In Cloak of Aesir. Chicago: Shasta, 1952. Also in Who Goes There? And Other Stories. New York: Dell, 1955. Also in Lester del Rey, ed. The Best of John W. Campbell. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976. New York: Ballantine, 1976.
The Sarn invaded Earth and conquered humanity in 1977 with atomic blast weapons. It is also mentioned that atomic flames, used mostly for light, can be used to destroy buildings. Four thousand years later, a brilliant scientist leads a successful rebellion using supertechnology with which the Sarn cannot cope.

___. "Forgetfulness" (as "Don A. Stuart," Astounding, June 1937). In Cloak of Aesir. Chicago: Shasta, 1952. Also in Lester del Rey, ed., The Best of John W. Campbell. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976. New York: Ballantine, 1976.
The people of Rhth (Earth?) brought civilization to the sister world of Pareeth, which developed technology four times and each time blasted itself back to barbarism through atomic power. Atomic engines are used as weapons.

___. "Frictional Losses" (as "Don A. Stuart," Astounding, July 1936). In Who Goes There? Seven Tales of Science Fiction. Chicago: Shasta, 1948.
Scientists search in the ruins of their civilization for technology to combat the vile Granthee who have almost exterminated humanity with atomic bombs and fever rays. Their weapons have "loosened" the islands of Japan so that they have sunk into the deep entirely. Humans manage to invent the bomb and use it against the Granthee, but at appalling cost: only two million people survive. A scientist manages to invent a new disintegrator ray which works by eliminating the friction which holds things together. With this new device, Earth will prevail over the second wave of Granthee.

___. "The Last Evolution" (Amazing, August, 1932). In Alden H. Norton, ed. Award Science Fiction Reader. New York: Award Books, 1966. Also in Lester del Rey, ed. The Best of John W. Campbell. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976. New York: Ballantine, 1976. Also in Arthur Liebman, ed. Science Fiction: The Best of Yesterday. New York: Richards Rosen, 1980. Also in Isaac Asimov, Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh, eds. Space Mail, Vol. 2. New York: Fawcett, 1982.
In 2538, a human culture dominated by machinery uses atomic torpedoes against invading aliens, to little avail. The enemy's mysterious ray weapons must be combatted by a new "ultimate energy" weapon. Humanity will be wiped out in the process, but its machines will survive, proving to be the last stage in human evolution.

___. "Rebellion" (as Don A. Stuart, Astounding, August 1935). In Cloak of Aesir. Chicago: Shasta, 1952. Also in Lester del Rey, ed. The Best of John W. Campbell. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976. New York: Ballantine, 1976.
Because machines supply all their wants, humans have declined into barbarism. The invading Tharoo breed them as servants, but make the mistake of allowing some of them to be scientists, who learn how to use the atomic technology of their masters in miniaturized form as effective weapons to gain their freedom.

___. "Uncertainty." Amazing, October, November 1936.
An invading alien race overwhelms Earth's proton guns with their neutron weapons until atomic power is achieved, making possible a new ray weapon.

___. "When the Atoms Failed." Amazing, January 1930.
Invading Martians who atom-bomb San Francisco are battled with "matter energy," described as the power of the sun. A death ray from a single defending Earth ship defeats twenty Martian ships, exploding its cargo of atomic bombs. The ship is then used by the human victors to impose universal disarmament on Earth.

Canham, Erwin. "Start the Presses!" See under Collier's.

Capek, Karel. The Absolute at Large. Originally Tovarna na absolutno, 1922. Trans. from the Czech, anon. New York: Macmillan, 1927. London: Allen & Unwin, 1944. Abridged version in Damon Knight, ed. A Century of Great Short Science Fiction Novels. New York: Delacorte, 1964. New York: Dell, 1965. London: Gollancz, 1965. London: Mayflower, 1968.
Religious fanaticism surrounding the invention of a "Karburator" which liberates energy from matter creates a devastating world war which all but destroys civilization. The new form of energy, however, is not itself used as a weapon.

___. Krakatit: An Atomic Fantasy. Prague: Aventinium, 1924. Trans. Lawrence Hyde. London: Bles, 1925. London: Allen & Unwin, 1948. New York: Macmillan, 1925. New York: Arts, Inc., 1951. New York: Arno, 1975.
An eccentric scientist succeeds in disintegrating the atom, creating a powerful weapon which he struggles to keep from falling into the hands of a group of conspirators aiming at world rule. The princess who loves him helps him escape, but he is captured by a dangerous leftist revolutionary group. Finally all Krakatit is destroyed, the scientist forgets how to make it, and the world is spared.

Cantor, Jay. Krazy Kat: A Novel in Five Panels. New York: Knopf, 1987. New York: Science Fiction Book Club, 1988. New York: Collier, 1989.
The characters from George Herriman's famous comic strip are put through a series of postmodernist adventures relating to various aspects of contemporary society, including the atomic bomb. In the strip, Ignatz Mouse constantly expressed his animosity toward Krazy Kat by flinging bricks at her head, which she foolishly interpreted as tokens of his affection. In the novel Ignatz brings Krazy to witness the Trinity test, which he hopes will act as the ultimate brick, shocking her into reality. He later forges a series of letters to make her believe that Robert Oppenheimer is fascinated by her. Throughout the rest of the novel Krazy continues to be haunted by thoughts of the atomic bomb, of Hiroshima, and of Oppenheimer. The main theme of this striking work is not, however, nuclear war, but the process through which the cartoon characters seek roundness and in the process lose their innocence.

Card, Orson Scott. The Abyss. New York: Pocket Books, 1989.
A novel based on the James Cameron sceenplay for the highly impressive film of the same name. Card, in an afterword, refuses to label his book a novelization; and he does add three background chapters to the story as presented in the film and fleshes out the motives and general psychology of the main human characters and the aliens. An intelligent deep-sea-dwelling creature accidentally blunders into a nuclear submarine, causing its destruction. A deep-sea oil-drilling crew is sent to help a Navy SEAL team investigate the accident, ostensibly to rescue any survivors, but actually to prevent the sub and its weapons from falling into Soviet hands. The rabid SEAL commander must be prevented by the crew members from causing a nuclear war out of sheer paranoia. In a striking departure from the film as released, Card depicts the aliens as threatening all the coastlines of the world with huge tsunamis unless they agree to universal nuclear disarmament. Card at times seems to portray the military characters more sympathetically than does the film; but in the end the message is strongly antimilitary in both. Also striking are the sex-role reversals worked out in the plot, and the strong affirmation of love and marriage made by both the film and novel.

___. "Deep Breathing Exercises" (Omni, July 1979). In Unaccompanied Sonata and Other Stories. New York: Dial, 1981. Also in Ben Boom, ed. The Best of Omni Science Fiction, No. 4. New York: Omni, 1982.
A man develops a mysterious psychic ability: he notices that when people breathe in unison they are about to die. Just before missiles strike Denver he discovers himself breathing in unison with everyone else in the city. Despite its bizarre premise, this is a powerfully effective story.

___. The Memory of Earth (Homecoming, Volume 1). New York: TOR, 1992.
A group of exiles has abandoned an Earth destroyed by nuclear war and settled the planet of Harmony. Their descendants are ruled by a computer the original exiles built which is called the "Oversoul" and which has for forty million years telepathically prevented the rebirth of technology which could lead to renewed war, but the Oversoul is breaking down. First in the "Homecoming" series, whose other volumes are The Call of Earth (1994), The Ships of Earth (1995), Earthfall (1996) and Earthborn (1996), all published by TOR.

Carlson, William K. Sunrise West. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981.
A neobarbarian novel about the tribulations of a young woman in a violent communal culture. The only hint indicating that a nuclear war might have been the vague holocuast which destroyed civilization is the presence of numerous intelligent mutated animals. Reference is made to the "chineys" who once conquered North America and have now vanished.

Carr, Robert Spencer. "Mutation." In Beyond Infinity. Reading, Pa.: Fantasy Press, 1951. New York: Dell, 1954.
After a nuclear and bacteriological holocaust has killed most of the human race, a man named Adam and his pregnant wife Mary struggle for survival, threatened by their degenerate son, Kane. The latter is providentially killed by a marauder and a Christlike child is born, signalling the emergence of a new and happier race of godlike beings who will inherit the Earth.

Carr, Terry. "Ozymandius." In Harlan Ellison, ed. Again, Dangerous Visions, Vol. II. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972. New York: Signet, 1973. Also in Terry Carr. The Light at the End of the Universe. New York: Pyramid, 1976.
In a post-nuclear holocaust world, scavengers rob cryogenic vaults for food and loot.

Carter, Angela. Heroes and Villains. London: Heinemann, 1969. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981.
The daughter of a learned man of the caste known as "professors" flees with a barbarian lad after her father is killed by the boy's tribe; she is raped and forced to marry him. She develops an erotic obsession with him, even though she learns he had been responsible years before for the death of her brother. This is a tale of brutal sadism, though beautifully written. The novel contains no direct references to nuclear weapons, but the existence of mutated wild animals indicates their use.

Carter, Paul. "The Last Objective" (Astounding, August 1946). In Groff Conklin, ed. A Treasury of Science Fiction. New York: Crown, 1948 (omitted from the 1957 Berkley paperback edition). Also in Brian Aldiss and Harry Harrison, eds. Decade of the 1940s. London: Macmillan, 1975. Also in Isaac Asimov, ed. The Great Science Fiction Stories: 8 (1946). New York: DAW, 1982.
For a generation, a nuclear war has raged on the surface while the population lives underground. Subterranean battle cruisers bore through the Earth. On one of these, two elderly officers choose to be blown up with the atomic bomb their ship carries when it must be destroyed: they have realized the futility of the war. The Asian enemy, evidently feeling similarly, has commined mass suicide by releasing a biological weapon which will destroy all life on Earth--the ultimate form of sepukku.

Cartmill, Cleve. "Deadline" (Astounding, March 1944). In Groff Conklin, ed. The Best of Science Fiction. New York: Crown, 1946. New York: Bonanza, 1963. Rpt. as The Golden Age of Science Fiction. New York: Bonanza, 1980. Also in Frederik Pohl, Martin H. Greenberg and Joseph D. Olander, eds. Science Fiction of the 40's. New York: Avon, 1978. Also in Isaac Asimov, ed. The Great Science Fiction Stories: 6 (1944). New York: DAW, 1981.
A story notable because its detailed description of a U-235 fission bomb prompted the FBI to suspect a security leak from the Manhattan Project. In this amateurish thriller set on another world, alien names are simple reversals of ordinary contemporary names (the war takes place between the Sixa and the Seilla, for instance). The mad Dr. Sitruc must be prevented from exploding an atomic bomb, the testing of which will destroy the world in a vast chain reaction, due to the immense heat it will generate. The scientist is foiled by an agent who talks his way into his laboratories, steals the weapon, and disassembles it. The world is safe because Dr. Sitruc will not be able to assemble another bomb before the war ends. A sample passage will illustrate the sort of thing which worried government officials:
"Now U-235 can raise the temperature of local matter to where it will, uh, 'burn', and give off energy. So let's say we set off a little pinch of U-235. Surrounding matter also explodes, as it is raised to an almost inconceivable temperature. It cools rapidly; within perhaps onehundred-millionth of a second it is down below the point of ignition. Then maybe a full millionth of a second passes before it's down to one million degrees hot, and a minute or so may elapse before it is visible in the normal sense. Now that visible radiation will represent no more than one-hundred-thousandth of the total radiation at one million degrees-- but even so, it would be several hundred times more brilliant than the sun." . . . "Now that radiation pressure is the stuff that's potent. The sheer momentum, physical pressure of light from the stuff at one million degrees, would amount to tons and tons and tons of pressure. It would blow down buildings like a titanic wind if it weren't for the fact that absorption of such appalling energy would volatilize the buildings before they could move out of the way." [More]


___ . "With Flaming Swords" (Astounding, September 1942). In Groff Conklin, ed. A Treasury of Science Fiction. New York: Crown, 1948.
The story of the overthrow of the glowing mutant "Saints" who rule humanity. They are products of the firing of an L-ray gun centuries earlier, which affected the germ plasm. An atomic blast waste disposal chute is mentioned. Published in the same issue of Astounding as another pre-1945 atomic disaster tale, Lester del Rey's Nerves.

Cartur, Peter. "Target." In Astounding, October 1947.
Aliens land on the moon just in time to see it hit by an atomic bomb. They decide they are being attacked and summon aid to destroy the Earth.

Caseleyr, Camille Auguste. See Danvers, Jack.

Casewit, Curtis W. The Peacemakers. New York: Avalon, 1960. New York: Macfadden, 1968.
After a nuclear war results in epidemics which have killed off most of the human race, a stupid military dictatorship established on Rockland Island is determined to wipe out its rival, Sunland. The hero is a scientist forced to research biochemical weapons (a parallel is drawn with Soviet research). Instead, he decides to synthesize the antiwar drug sympathone and spray it on dictator General Puckett (compare Theodora DuBois, Solution T-25). Puckett is finally killed by his own men because he has accidentally donned an enemy uniform. An interesting combination of sympathy for both religion and science. A bizarre, extreme case of trying to vindicate science in the post-nuclear war world, although there is a warning near the end that the drug may not be a total solution. Puckett's daughter falls in love with the hero.

Castle, Mort. "And of Gideon." In John Maclay, ed. Nukes: Four Horror Writers on the Ultimate Horror. Baltimore: Maclay, 1986. Repr. in Mark Bernal & Gary Fincke, eds.: Horror: The Illustrated Book of Fears. Blue Island, Ill.: Northstar Publishing, 1989. Also in Nations of the Living, Nations of the Dead. Canton: Ohio: Prime Books, 2002.
A man driven mad by his past as an abused child and as a torturer in South Vietnam becomes a wandering serial murderer who sees himself as putting sufferers out of their misery. After being captured and sentenced to death, he becomes highly educated and religious as he awaits execution. When a nuclear war breaks out, the prisoners are freed and the protagonist has a field day killing victims of the bombs in the aftermath. He thanks God for creating a world ideally suited to him.

Chandler, A. Bertram. "False Dawn" (Astounding, October 1946). In Martin H. Greenberg, ed. Journey to Infinity. New York: Gnome, 1951.
A prehistoric civilization witnesses the death of the moon through a nuclear war. A fleeing rocket lands on the Earth, setting off a radioactive volcanic chain reaction which plunges the world back into barbarism. A young leader named Carran emerges. The author asks: "Were Carran and his kind, then, the true dawn? Or would they play out, here on Earth, the tragic drama that had made the Moon a scarred and pitted horror--unleash powers that would send the world reeling forever through time and space, a seared and sterile mausoleum of the hopes and fears of the ages."

Charnas, Suzy McKee. Motherlines. New York: Putnam, 1978. New York: Berkley, 1979. London: Coronet, 1981. Sequel to Walk to the End of the World.
Follows the adventures of fem Alldera among rival female groups living in the desert: Free Fems and Riding Women. Each has its good and bad points. The latter have achieved parthenogenesis stimulated by mating with stallions. Although this is a very interesting novel for its treatment of feminist issues, it contains practically nothing about nuclear war. Another sequel is clearly implied. See Ian Boyd, "Algol Interview: Suzy McKee Charnas," Algol 16 (Winter 1979): 21-25, and Suzy McKee Charnas, "A Woman Appeared," in Marlene S. Barr, ed., Future Females (Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1981): 103-8. [64]

___. Walk to the End of the World. New York: Ballantine, 1974. London: Coronet, 1981. Sequel: Motherlines.
An incredibly savage male-dominant society enslaves women, blamed for the catastrophe called "The Wasting." Some of these ancient criminals are referred to as "bra-burners," the men supposing the bra was a sort of weapon. Women are referred to as "unmen" and blamed for the period after The Wasting called "The Dirties." The human race survived The Wasting in shelters. Although mutants are mentioned in passing and it seems likely that The Wasting was a nuclear war, that fact is never specifically mentioned. A rebellious fem named Alldera escapes from the hellish misogynistic city. On her trek she encounters experiments in breeding fems as pack animals and for food, at Troi (Detroit?). Alldera's further adventures are narrated in the sequel. [More & More]

Chase, Stuart. "Out of the Rubble--A New Russia." See under Collier's.

Cherryh, C.J. "Pots." In Janet Morris, ed. Afterwar. New York: Baen, 1985.
An interstellar civilization has been led to Earth by the discovery in space of the Voyager space probe. A cult of veneration has developed around the civilization which sent the probe. Unfortunately, the alien archaeologists discover that humanity destroyed itself in a nuclear winter 8.75 million years earlier. A conspiracy is hatched to cover up the truth and maintain the myth of Earth's admirable past.

Chevalier, Haakon [Maurice]. The Man Who Would Be God. New York: Putnam, 1959.
Chevalier was the friend of Robert Oppenheimer who reported to his wife the fact that the Russians were interested in obtaining information about the Manhattan Project. Oppenheimer's bizarre handling of this incident during his security investigation, combined with the anti-Communist hysteria of the postwar era, was later to lead to public disgrace for both of them. In this fictionalized version of the case, Chevalier defends himself against the accusation of espionage, creating as his own persona an idealistic FBI informer who is mistakenly identified as a spy. Chevalier paints a mixed picture of his "father of the A-bomb," noting his charisma without depicting it and shamelessly describing his sordid sex life. No insights into Oppenheimer's motives are provided. Chapter 28 depicts the protagonist's feelings when the bomb (here called "the bolt") is dropped on Hiroshima. At that moment, he sets a moth free to fly out his window. The final line in the book reads, "San Francisco, 1948-Paris, 1958," which is perhaps supposed to establish that Chevalier began his book long before Oppenheimer's security problems had become public knowledge.

Christopher, John [pseud. of Christopher Samuel Youd]. Death of Grass. London: Michael Joseph, 1956. London: Sidgwick & amp;Jackson, 1957. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1958. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1957. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958. New York: Pocket Books, 1958. New York: Avon, 1967. As No Blade of Grass, serialized in Saturday Evening Post, April 27, 1957-June 8, 1957.
When a mutated virus which kills all grasses erupts--like flu--from China, the world is threatened with starvation. A mad British leader orders H-bomb strikes against London and other major English cities to reduce the population by two-thirds. The story depicts a group of ordinary Londoners killing and looting its way across the landscape to rural sanctuary. Although the evil leader is overthrown, it is never made completely clear whether some bombs were actually dropped (though explosions are heard in the distance). In this relentlessly savage survivalist fantasy, it is impossible to distinguish villains from heroes. At the end the hardy survivors look forward to rebuilding civilization--somehow or other. Could be read as a cold war parable of the necessity for ruthlessness in the battle for national survival.

___. "Two." Esquire, May 1952.
The last man surviving in a world demolished by a nuclear war wanders among lush, flourishing plant life and finally discovers a woman sleeping under a tree. "I am Adam," he says. "Welcome, Eve."

CIarke, Arthur C. "If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth" (Future Combined with Science Fiction Stories, September 1951). In Expedition to Earth. New York: 1953. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1954. London: Corgi, 1959. Also in Across the Sea of Stars. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1959. Also in The Nine Billion Names of God. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1967. Also in An Arthur C. Clarke Omnibus. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1965. Also in Of Time and Stars. London: Gollancz, 1972. Also in Thomas D. Clareson, ed. A Spectrum of Worlds. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972. Also in Brian Aldiss, ed. Evil Earths. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1975. New York: Avon, 1979. Also in Isaac Asimov, Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh, eds. After the End. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1981. Also in Walter M. Miller, Jr. and Martin H. Greenberg, eds. Beyond Armageddon: Twenty-one Sermons to the Dead. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1985.
Children living underground on the moon are taken to gaze at the glowing radioactive Earth so that they may understand the goal of the colony: to return to Earth one day centuries later. Clarke is also the author of a nonfiction account of British work on nuclear fission 1939-1940, The Birth of the Bomb (1961).

___. "Loophole" (Astounding, April 1946). In Expedition to Earth. New York: Ballantine, 1953. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1954. London: Corgi, 1959. Also in Groff Conklin, ed. A Treasury of Science Fiction. New York: Crown, 1948. New York: Berkley, 1957. Also in Damon Knight, ed. First Flight. New York: Lancer, 1963. Revised by Damon Knight, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., as First Voyages. New York: Avon, 1981. Also in An Arthur C. Clarke Omnibus. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1965. Also in Thomas D. Clareson, ed. A Spectrum of Worlds. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972. London: Corgi, 1959. Also in Isaac Asimov, Martin H. Greenberg & Charles G. Waugh, eds. Space Mail, Vol. 2. New York: Fawcett, 1982. Also in Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg, eds. The Great Science Fiction Stories: 8 (1946). New York: DAW, 1982.
The Martians, alarmed by Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and ensuing space exploration attempts, ban further space travel by Earthlings. The latter agree, but master matter transmission instead and bomb Martian civilization to oblivion.

___. 2001: A Space Odyssey. New York: Signet, 1968.
At the end of the novel the reborn space child explodes a mysterious orbiting nuclear weapon.

___ . 2010: Odyssey Two. New York: Ballatine, 1982. London: Granada, 1982.
Chapter 30 contains a slightly more detailed account of the incident referred to above. It is never revealed who placed the weapon in orbit, or why.

Clarkson, Helen [maiden name of Helen Worrell Clarkson McCloy, who wrote mostly detective fiction as "Helen McCloy"]. The Last Day: A Novel of the Day After Tomorrow (Satellite Science Fiction, April 1958). New York: Dodd, 1959.
An exceptionally intelligent account of a nuclear war from the fringes--a summer home on an island off the New England coast. Strong characters, good political analysis, and well-researched details of radiation effects. At the end the woman narrator is left alone on the island and seems unlikely to survive. [More & More]

Clason, Clyde B. Ark of Venus. New York: Knopf, 1955.
A juvenile adventure story of an expedition to Venus. One hundred and eighty years after the atomic wars, Eastern Europe and Russia have been "liberated," the world has been divided into six superstates, and atomic weapons are banned (although nuclear power is still used). Religious fanatics oppose the seemingly doomed expeditions to Venus by equally religious but rational colonists. Consists largely of routine adventures with alien creatures in a hostile environment, with little reference to the earlier wars.

Cloete, Stuart. "The Blast" (Collier's, April 12, 19, 1947). In Groff Conklin, ed. Six Great Short Novels of Science Fiction. New York: Dell, 1954.
One of the few survivors of the Great Disaster of October 5, 1947 tells, in a series of disjointed flashbacks, of the chaotic horror which engulfed New York City in the wake of an atomic attack which also destroyed most of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, if not the Earth. Although the U.S. retaliates against the Russians, Nazi refugees in Latin America had actually launched the attack. Civilization proves fragile, for within an hour of the bombing, the city is plunged into a chaos of theft, rape, and murder. To protect his wife, the protagonist disguises her as a boy until starvation renders her safely unattractive. Many people commit suicide, others resort to infanticide or cannibalism. Angry farmers repel fleeing city-dwellers. The protagonist finds his metier in shooting people's starving pets for half the meat, later turning to big game hunting as he pursues freed zoo animals and mutated creatures such as giant minks through the urban jungle, choked with flourishing plant life. Most people, including the narrator's wife, die not of the immediate effects of the war, but of a mysterious disease seemingly induced by radiation and called the "Red Death," which causes them to dance themselves to death. The narrator survives a rather comically described bout of this terpsichorean plague, indulges in drinking and collecting art, and finally joins a band of roving Indians and mates with their young white female interpreters, and rides off happily in the spring sunshine. Despite its fantastic elements, the story is actually rather thoughtful. Cloete seems concerned seriously to warn his contemporaries of the dangers of atomic warfare, depicted here in the form of small bombs smuggled into the country. He discusses the futility of the notion of atomic secrecy: "Among others, I wrote and talked of the dangers of our Anglo- American retention of the bomb secret, maintaining that manufacture should cease and control be given to the United Nations. I also said that our civilization, as we knew it, was finished; and that as others were writing and saying at the time the future presented only two alternatives: the liberation of man through atomic power or the destruction of our civilization, either by great nations in an undeclared war, which was what we feared, or by--and this was more or less in the realm of 'astounding fiction' stories--atomic bandits or nihilists." Scientists are noted as being prominent in efforts to remove the bomb from military control. The narrator states that the human race has destroyed itself through its courage. Cowardice would have been preferable.

Coerr, Eleanor. Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes. Illus. Ronald Himler. New York: Putnam, 1977. New York: Dell, 1979.
The lightly fictionalized story of a real twelve-year-old girl who died of leukemia caused by her exposure to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima when she was two. She attempted to fold one thousand origami paper cranes in the belief that she would be healed by the completion of this task. She died after doing 644. Her classmates completed the task in her memory. Today thousands of paper cranes annually decorate a monument erected in 1958--to Sadako in the Peace Park at Hiroshima.

Cohen, Gary G. Civilization's Last Hurrah. Chicago: Moody, 1974.
Written by a converted Jew, this novel is based on the prophesies contained in the Book of Revelation. War in the Near East involves the use by Israel of American-provided "nuclear laser beam" weapons. Conflicts proliferate around the world, including a war in Africa which involves the dropping of a nuclear bomb on the capital of Zaire, Kinshasa.

Cohen, Robert. The Organ Builder. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
A young lawyer, trying to escape the curse he feels from the fact that his father helped to build the atomic bomb before abandoning his family, finds himself ironically back in New Mexico, helping a large corporation to seize Indian land in order to mine uranium. He becomes involved with a couple doing a documentary about the Manhattan Project, then discovers that his long-lost father had become an organ builder. Chapter 9 contains a mention of H. G. Wells inventing the bomb in The World Set Free. A well-written meditation on personal responsibility.

Cole, Burt. Subi: The Volcano. New York: Macmillan, 1957. London: W. H. Allen, 1958.
Set in a devastating war in Asia which remarkably foreshadows certain aspects of the Vietnam War. Focuses on child prostitution and on attacks by rioting natives on the American army base. Climaxes in scenes of brutal slaughter, a hurricane, and plague. The only hint of the use of nuclear weapons in the period preceding the opening of the novel is a single reference to radiation burns. The author was with the military in Japan 1952-53.

Colller's, October 27, 1951. "Preview of the War We Do Not Want."
This special issue was devoted entirely to the depiction of a war with the USSR which results in the destruction of Russian communism and that nation's joyful adoption of the American way of life. Despite its hypocritical title, this is the ultimate cold war fantasy. Fictional articles and reportage, stories, and even cartoons and sketches are coordinated in a uniform scenario. On May 10, 1952, the Russians and their allies try to assassinate Tito and invade Jugoslavia. Communist saboteurs attack the U.S. (these are professional infiltrators; members of the American Communist party are scorned), and Soviet troops march across Western Europe and into the Middle East. The U.S. and other U.N. nations retaliate by striking "legitimate military targets only" in the USSR with nuclear weapons in an attack "the like of which had never been dreamed of by the most fanciful author of science fiction and which will never be repeated, pray God, again!" (Despite this statement, some of the authors seem to have difficulty in grasping the scale of nuclear warfare. Lowell Thomas, for instance, notes that a field roughed up by atomic explosions makes for a bumpy landing.) The A-bombing goes on around the clock for three months and sixteen days, somewhat hampered by a bomber shortage caused by a short-sighted Congress. The Russians invade Alaska, then drop atomic bombs on London, various U.N. military bases, Detroit, New York, and the nuclear reservation at Hanford in Washington State. Since the civil defense plans of the U.S. have never been put into effect, the result is devastating. Londoners, experienced in dealing with Nazi bombing, fare better. The U.S. out- bombs the Russians by 100 to 1, but since our free press reports domestic damage while theirs does not, the American public is more aware of its own suffering. The USSR avoids bombing European capitals to spare party members (evidently worthy of more respect than American Communists). Red soldiers, foolishly believing their own government's propaganda which has depicted the atomic bomb as a nightmare weapon, panic in the face of nuclear attacks. The Russians manage to build more bombs and renew their attacks on the U.S. One tiny village is struck, but survivors show their grit and sense of humor in the aftermath. On May 10, 1953, Washington, D.C., is finally hit, catapulting Lincoln out of his monument onto his nose. Bombs are launched at other targets from submarines near the shore. Public outrage creates a demand to bomb Moscow. Leaflets like those dropped on Hiroshima warn the inhabitants to evacuate, but the ruthless Communist rulers halt their flight by force. A bomb drops a few hundred yards from the notorious Lubianka prison, leaving freed prisoners to crawl away through the rubble. A suicide mission in the Urals ends the Russian nuclear threat. A noble "Statement of War Aims" called the "Denver Declaration" repudiates the sort of reprisals which followed previous world wars and mandates universal disarmament in ten years, with the U.N. controlling atomic power. Stalin is displaced by Beria, who is in turn defeated. The liberated Russians joyfully embrace their captors and struggle toward a new political and economic system to be defined by a democratic process. The contents of the issue are listed below in more detail.

Brodie, Howard. "Moscow Sketchbook."
Captioned sketches depict happy, liberated Russians.

Canham, Erwin. "Start the Presses!"
Freedom of the press in Russia results in a huge demand for American publications. "Little Orphan Annie" is especially popular. The front page news concerns a Hollywood star. But reeducation of the Soviets will be difficult: their minds are numb from disuse.

Chase, Stuart. "Out of the Rubble--A New Russia."
Primarily a retrospective critique of the Soviet economy. Industry is decentralized, farmer's coops and labor unions are created.

Higgins, Marguerite. "Women of Russia."
Women and children have especially suffered from the damage and disease resulting from the war. Like Hitler, Beria ordered political prisoners shipped to prison camps just before his defeat, but they were caught by the bombing in nonfunctioning railway stations. Most of the article is devoted to sketching the conditions of Russian women circa 1951. The highlight of the reconstruction is a fashion show attended by fifty thousand women in a huge stadium. Although they suffer from a shortage of foundation garments, they are delighted by American soldiers and marry them in large numbers.

Kasenkina, Oksana. "We Worship GOD Again."
A brief sketch by a refugee schoolteacher who jumped from the third floor of the Russian consulate in New York in 1948; mostly describes the horrors of the Soviet system. She actually says very little about religion.

Koestler, Arthur. "Freedom--At Long Last."
A survey of the work of the United Nations Housing and Providing Enterprise (UNIHOPE) in Russia. Political parties are formed, diversity blooms. Communism vanished with the Communist leaders because it had no doctrine, only terror to support it. Elections are somewhat farcical because people are still afraid to choose sides, voting simply yes. "It may take at least a generation to change robots back into humans again." Certain lucky children will be sent abroad to live in America for a year; and the lottery which determines who will go is wildly popular. Foreign books are in high demand. Koestler details a revolt in a Kolyma prison camp which results in the Autonomous Convicts' Republic. Writes Koestler: "there is a certain comfort in the thought that although we wanted to avoid this war at almost any price, it was the Soviet regime itself which, by running amuck, forced us to destroy it; that apparently there is a law which compels such regimes to commit suicide in their insatiable lust for power. All tyrannies carry the seed of their own destruction--but at what price, at what terrible price for humanity. . . ."

Mauldin, Bill.
Several cartoons depict Weary Willie and other characters occupying the Soviet Union.

Morgan-Ryan, Kathryn. "The Present."

A heavily ironic anecdote tells of how a Russian general maneuvered an American general into giving him his special pistol at the end of World War II and then used it to kill himself at the end of World War III. The pistol is reclaimed by its rightful owner.

Murrow, Edward R. "A-Bomb Mission to Moscow."
In this very low-key report of the atomic bombing of the Russian capital, the bomb appears through the haze like a "gigantic blowtorch." The thoroughly professional crew of the plane displays no emotion outwardly, but the pilot's knuckles are white and those on board suffer "sagging spirits." Murrow was reportedly sorry later that he participated in this project.

Nevins, Allan. "Free Thoughts, Free Words."
Education blossoms as Western dignitaries lecture in liberated Russia. Albert Schweitzer, traveling with Ralph Bunche, is excited about the possibilities for atomic power. T. S. Eliot lectures in Moscow on "the spirit of modern American and British literature."

Priestly, J. B. "The Curtain Rises . . ."
The arts flourish in Russia. Among other wonders, the former Red Army Company stages Guys and Dolls.

Reuther, Walter. "Free Men at Work."
Free trade unions are formed in liberated Russia.

Savage, John. "Trouble at Tuaviti."
A young American missionary and a courageous native stand up to the commander of a Russian submarine trying to establish a missile guidance base on a Pacific island. The fearful Russians leave.

Schwartz, Harry. "Miracle of American Production."
The U.S. surpasses its World War II output during the war effort. With industry well dispersed, only 10 percent of it was damaged and there were few transportation problems. A glowingly optimistic assessment of the resilience and productivity of American industry.

Sherwood, Robert E. "The Third World War."
The basic outline of the war from which most of the introductory remarks to this section are taken.

Smith, Margaret Chase. "Russia's Rebirth."
An editorial which says that women have suffered the most in the USSR but hold the greatest promise for the future.

Smith, Red. "Moscow Olympics."
Sports in liberated Russia.

Thomas, Lowell. "I Saw Them Chute Into the Urals."
A brief account of the strike against the Russian nuclear base.

Winchell, Walter. "Walter Winchell in Moscow."
An argument for world unity.

Wylie, Philip. "Philadelphia Phase."
A young man abandoned by his irresponsible fiancee falls in love with a young Russian woman detailed to help rebuild Philadelphia. [63]

Conquest, [George] Robert [Ackworth]. A World of Difference. London: Ward Lock, 1955. New York: Ballantine, 1964.
A nuclear war in the 1980s has caused little immediate damage except when fusion bombs punctured the shield over Tiflis and killed all its inhabitants. A form of limited war was waged in which cities were warned in advance that they would be attacked, the people evacuated, and the cities were then sown with radioactive dust. More people died of starvation than of direct effects of the bombs during the war. There have been mass liquidations and deportations. Manufacturing--largely automated--has been moved underground. There are few people left (London is the second largest city with thirty thousand people), but they maintain an advanced technology. There are several subplots, but the main plot concerns a scheme by ruthless Marxists to overthrow the government which has subjected many of their number to psychological reconditioning. At the novel's climax, a plot to wreck the Earth with cobalt bombs is thwarted.

Constantine, Storm. The Fulfillments of Fate and Desire: The Third Book of Wraeththu. Birmingham: Drunken Dragon, 1989. London: Orbit, 1989.

Cook, Glen. The Heirs of Babylon. New York: Signet, 1972.
Ritual warfare is conducted at sea under the orders of the mysterious High Command long after a holocaust has shattered civilization. The original conflict began when the Russians responded to invasion by launching their atomic weapons, but few of the bombs on either side worked since they had been secretly dismantled by plotters preparing for the biological war which followed. Alliances have shifted, until Northern Europe is battling the Australians. A climactic sea battle culminates in the use of an atomic bomb.

Cook, Paul. The Alejandra Variations. New York: Ace, 1984.
A secret Air Force project links nuclear strategists to a computer in such a way that they experience scenarios of future conflicts as if they were real. An actual strike leads to a limited nuclear exchange (one bomb on each side) and to electromagnetic pulse effects which cause those involved in the project to believe that a holocaust is imminent. The protagonist witnesses such a war as well as a decadent underground culture of one thousand years in the future and a female-dominated nomadic culture of a quarter-million years in the future, both of which are haunted by automated nuclear weapons which hunt down and destroy human life. A third incarnation finds him as a many-times reincarnated mortal on an Earth about to be destroyed by the explosion of the sun. In each of these "variations" he is pursued by lustful, determined women. He awakes to find all three of these experiences were computer-generated illusions, and that only the limited exchange--called "the scare"--is real. The computer which has been obsessed with him has in fact been the force behind all his seductresses. Furious at being pried away from him by another supercomputer, it threatens to destroy the planet until the hero defeats it with Gandhian passive resistance. Various features of the book are interesting: in one of the variations, men are blamed for warfare and women are placed in control to keep the peace; in another, giant cockroaches and human beings are the only surviving species. Ozone layer depletion is discussed, and the conclusion refers to nuclear winter theory.

___. Duende Meadow. New York: Bantam, 1985.
Six centuries after a nuclear winter triggered a new ice age, a small community survives deep underground in a fusion-powered ark which was built in a bankrupt shopping mall, and lowered a thousand feet into the Earth when war broke out. This civilian shelter is paired with a subterranean defense complex. Some Russians also survived, in undersea shelters, and emerged to colonize part of Kansas, which is free of the ice. When this is discovered by the underground dwellers, the military faction determines to exterminate the invaders; but reconciliation between the Russians and the Americans proves wiser in the long run. An unusual plea for international understanding somewhat muted by the fact that the Russian invaders have rejected Communism and the surviving Americans have lost democracy.

Coon, Horace C. 43,000 Years Later. New York: Signet, 1958. London: Panther, 1959.
Presented as a report by scientists from the Great Galaxy visiting a long-uninhabited Earth, this is actually a thinly disguised compendium of views on politics, economics, religion, sex, history, and a great deal else. From time to time the aliens misinterpret the evidence of Earth's past, sometimes comically; but for most of the work's length they are miraculously perspicacious and clearly serve as mouthpieces for the author. One long section is devoted to the interpretation of the contents of the time capsule buried at the World's Fair site in New York's Flushing Meadows in 1938. Only toward the end of the book is the cause of the war discovered: Japan had gone Communist and launched a new attack on Pearl Harbor with a nuclear weapon, which led to retaliation by both East and West. Little attempt is made to portray the devastation, but there is one striking image of the Statue of Liberty blown across the harbor to Coney Island. Glaciers have covered much of the Northeast at some time since the war. All animals have been killed except insects and fish. Earthquakes have dumped much of the crumbled coast south of San Francisco into the ocean. In Arizona the madness represented by the nuclear weapon testing sites is contrasted with the harmony and wisdom represented by the Indian ruins. It is said that testing probably produced widespread disease. Several motives are adduced for the holocaust: nationalism, religion, overpopulation, and conservative inflexibility, among others. At the work's end, three scientists offer their views one authoritarian, one religious, and one moderate--on how the war might have been prevented. Dissatisfied with their own sterile utopia and stimulated by Earth's deplorable but fascinating history, they look forward to the evolution of a new, improved race of humanity. The work resembles badly written H. G. Wells.

Cooper, Edmund. The Cloud Walker. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1973. London: Coronet, 1975. New York: Ballantine, 1973.
After two nuclear holocausts, England is oppressed by the Luddite church which burns those who dare attempt to revive technology. A young apprentice painter defies the law by building flying machines, and wins the support of the villagers when his hot air balloon successfully repels a band of savage pirates. Religion is repudiated and the necessity of reviving science and technology realized. This is a better than average example of its type, with the love affair of the hero especially well depicted. Once the Luddites are defeated, no consideration is given to the prevention of a third nuclear war.

___. The Last Continent. New York: Dell, 1969. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1970.
In the twenty-second century, victorious blacks have built an advanced civilization on Mars, two thousand years after a cataclysmic race war which destroyed the moon and the Earth's magnetic field, exposing it to deadly cosmic radiation and rendering most of the planet uninhabitable. Because the Earth has been tilted off its former axis, Antarctica now has a tropical climate, and an expedition of blacks seeking to exploit its mineral wealth arrives, surprised to find a race of primitive whites living there. One fanatical crew member whose religion teaches hatred of the former oppressor wants to exterminate them; but a beautiful young woman on the crew falls in love with one of the natives and fights to have them preserved. Together they explore a mysterious tower containing ancient high technology and art treasures and are able to persuade the Martian leaders that the two races can now live in peace and reclaim the wasted Earth with the rediscovered knowledge.

___. The Overman Culture. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1971. London: Coronet, 1974. New York: Putnam, 1972. New York: Berkley, 1973.
A group of young people is raised by humanoid robots in an ersatz London. They seek to discover the meaning of the differences they have noticed between themselves and their artificial companions. It turns out that all of humanity was exterminated ten thousand years earlier in atomic and biochemical wars and that they have been artificially cultured from stored genetic material and are destined to begin the human race all over again.

___. Seed of Light. London: Hutchinson, 1959. London: Panther, 1960. New York: Ballantine, 1959.
This novel set after a nuclear war fought in the late seventies or early eighties falls into two distinct halves. In the first, a scientist who feels guilty for his part in designing a space platform with nuclear superweapons decides to destroy it, but is himself killed by a Russian agent, who precipitates a second war which ends almost all human life on Earth. Professor Bollinger is an unusual character in that he seriously considers the responsibility of scientists in the development of weapons of mass destruction; but in his pactfist phase he is also portrayed as insane. The growth of his madness is partly indicated by his increasing quotation of scripture. In the second part, the remaining fragment of humanity builds starships to ensure that the race will continue on some world far from the dying Earth. The novel becomes an absurdly optimistic fantasy in which generations of star voyagers evolve superpowers and enormously prolonged lifespans (for no apparent reason other than that this is convenient for the author), and develop supertechnology which enables them to home in on the nearest Earthlike planet after centuries of vain searching. They arrive at a parallel version of Earth, but transported back in time fifty thousand years before their ancestors lefl. They resolve to alter history by teaching Neanderthal man the ways of peace, using passive resistance.

___. The Slaves of Heaven. New York: Putnam, 1974. New York: Berkley, 1975. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1975. London: Coronet, 1978.
Barbarians living on a postholocaust Earth are periodically raided by robots sent to collect women to incubate and bear the offspring of the high technology culture of an orbiting space station whose people are genetically damaged by cosmic rays. A courageous chief uses his native intelligence and hunting skills to outwit the enemy and prove himself their equal, negotiating an end to the exploitation and rights for his people.

___. The Uncertain Midnight. London: Hutchinson, 1958. London: Panther, 1959. London: Remploy, 1981. As Deadly Image. New York: Ballantine, 1958.
A man is accidentally frozen during the war called the "Nine-Days' Tranquillizer" in 1967, to be awakened in an anti-utopia dominated by androids in 2113. He joins a rebellion against the robots which have enslaved the human race by overprotecting it. The novel displays typical science fiction ambivalence toward technology: the androids are depicted as soulless tyrants, but the hero is able to humanize his own mechanical servant through love. Features a wizened clairvoyant, probably the result of a radiation-induced mutation.

Coppel, Alfred. The Burning Mountain. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. New York: Charter, 1984.
Lightning destroys the first atomic bomb before it can be tested and the invasion of Japan must proceed without it. Based on the war plans of both the U.S. and Japan, this alternative-history novel constitutes an argument for the conventional view that the use of the bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki prevented the unnecessary loss of life. MacArthur argues against the use of the bomb as dehumanizing warfare, but Truman proceeds to use it on March 17, 1946, affer 275,000 more people have died in the fighting.

___. Dark December. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1960. London: H. Jenkins, 1966.
     Major Kenneth Gavin emerges into a blasted world after an eight-month-long war sometime during the 1970s. Outside the sheltered bunkers where men like himself considered what they were doing merely a technical problem--a job to be done--everything he has fought for and loved has been destroyed. Army discipline has deteriorated, and roaming bands of renegades wreak havoc on small towns and travelers. Money is relatively worthless; as in many of these novels, the barter system has been revived. Gavin's goal, once he understands that he no longer has a military function in the new world, is to travel to Palo Alto, California, where he used to live with his wife and daughter, in the hope that they may have survived. In his quest--partly on horseback, but much of it on foot--he witnesses the effects of recent war: the fused rocks, burned forests, wrecked towns, dying people. Many of the details are reminiscent of Hiroshima. Gavin is forced to join the expedition of the mad martinet Major Collingwood, who relishes the return to old-fashioned warfare made possible by the postnuclear chaos. Gavin reacts: "My God  . . . The world smashed and burned and bleeding and here it was all ready to start over again. Here was the face of the real enemy. The man with a bayonet eager to kill." His reaction to the crazed violence of Collingwood underlines, however, the irony of Gavin's own actions: whereas he recoils from the other's savagery, it is of little account compared to the consequences of his own part in the late war, destroying millions from his safe underground bunker--and Collingwood is not slow to point out this fact. Gavin develops an inability to kill, even in self-defense, which is tested as he deserts Collingwood's troop and is pursued by the fanatical major down through Oregon and northern California.      Most authors would have used this plotline to demonstrate how necessary it is to continue to use lethal violence even after an atomic holocaust. Coppel refuses to concede the point and has his protagonist maintain a consistently pactfist stance throughout the rest of the novel. Gavin meets and rescues a young boy as well as a young woman who has been repeatedly raped. When they encounter a downed Russian pilot who has been captured and tortured by a teenage gang, Gavin is caught and takes the prisoner's place, later escaping without resort to lethal violence. In a climactic scene, Collingwood catches up with Gavin in the forest and announces that he is his other half, reminding him of his guilt in the atomic war. On a trestle over the river, Collingwood, concentrating on trying to kill Gavin's companions, loses his balance and falls in the water. Gavin tries to rescue him, but Collingwood refuses to drop his pistol to take his would-be rescuer's hand, fails to shoot Gavin because his waterlogged gun will not fire, and drowns. Collingwood's devotion to violence has led to his own destruction.      Despite the fact that the hero's reluctance to kill is depicted as involuntary, the book is a consistent exploration of the thesis that in a world wrecked by a nuclear war, a nonviolent attitude makes excellent sense. (Whether this is Coppel's own attitude can be questioned. See the discussion of his more recent novel, The Burning Mountain, above.) Dark December is an outstanding work in many other respects as well. There are numerous convincing details: the bout of radiation sickness suffered by Gavin, the illness of the children, the hostility of small- town residents wary of outsiders. In the end Gavin's repentance and redemption through suffering earn him a moderately happy ending: although his wife has died, he is reunited with his daughter and there is muted hope for the future. The novel contains a rather bizarre political twist: Russia, defeated in the war with the U.S., calls upon her former adversary to send troops to fend off an invasion from China.

___. "Mars Is Ours." Fantasy and Science Fiction, October 1954.
Russians and Americans fight each other on Mars with nuclear weapons and destroy each other's bases. The war is portrayed as stupid and futile.

___. "Secret Weapon." Astounding, July 1949.
A decade-long East-West nuclear and biochemical war has been carried to the moon. The initial Russian attack killed thirteen million in the West; the cities have been abandoned, life goes on underground. At the story's end the Russian lunar commander learns that he has been deceived by his subordinates using a ruse reminiscent of Potemkin villages: they have led him to believe that the war was going well when, in fact, they have been defeated.

Cordell, Alexander. The Bright Cantonese. London: Gollancz, 1967. As The Deadly Eurasian. New York: Weybright & amp;Talley, 1969.
A spy thriller in which a beautiful Eurasian Red Guard is assigned to escort victims of a surprise nuclear bombing in Kwangtun Province to Hong Kong. There she discovers from a black deserter that the bomb was launched from a U.S. destroyer as part of a plot by a fiendish arms merchant hoping to promote an attack by China on Taiwan. Having fallen in love with the American sailor, she nevertheless leaves him to track down the real villain in the United States. A Japanese collaborator with the People's Republic has arranged operation "Sea-Entry," a scheme whereby nuclear weapons have been smuggled into the harbors of major American coastal cities, to be detonated if the Chinese explosion should prove to have been a covert action of the American government. Although the Red Guard discovers the truth and tries to prevent the bombs being exploded, the collaborator conceals the truth and succeeds in having major cities destroyed. His motive, it turns out, is revenge: he was a survivor of Hiroshima. Leaving behind thirty-eight million dead Americans, the bright Cantonese heads for Hong Kong where she hopes to be rejoined with her lover.

Corley, Edwin. The Jesus Factor. New York: Stein & Day, 1970.
This thriller begins promisingly as chapters describing the experiences of the crews who flew the first atomic bombing mission alternate with chapters telling how, many years later, one of the bombadiers has become a presidential candidate, crusading for nuclear disarmament. The chapters set in 1945 are well researched and filled with interesting detail. But the story takes a bizarre turn as it transpires that, because of a mysterious effect called "the Jesus Factor," atomic bombs cannot be detonated when they are in motion, that Hiroshima was faked, and that the entire arms race has been a gigantic fraud. Convinced that the artificially maintained balance of power is the only safeguard against a devastating bacteriological war, the hero agrees to abandon his crusade.

Corston, George. Aftermath. London: Robert Hale, 1968.
The story of an Angry Young Man who takes refuge in a village store after abandoning his parents when the bombs hit London, written in the form of a monologue. He rails against modern culture: against television, automobiles, work, and the military. When martial law is imposed and all men conscripted, he deliberately crushes his foot and tells the officer who comes to seize his supplies: "God knows you kicked us about from arsehole to breakfast time before you nearly obliterated us. Surely you have the common decency to let us alone now." The wife of a man he almost kills turns out to be a nurse who tries, successfully, to seduce and, unsuccessfully, to domesticate him. But this novel is not typical in its treatment of sex. The protagonist's true love is a picture of a "Dusky Maiden" on a tin of fruit, and he and the nurse spend their last days not making love but vomiting and aching in the throes of leukemia while she yearns for her Catholic girlhood. Says he: "I'm sitting here like a spare prick at a wedding and she has a crush on Jesus Christ." The protagonist is brutal and self-centered; but this narrowly focussed, often absurdist vision of the end of civilization is strikingly effective. The protagonist, contrary to the normal convention of first-person narrative, dies in the end.

Costikyan, Greg. "Bright Light, Big City." Asimov's February 1991.
Nuclear terrorism in New York City.

Coulson, Robert. To Renew the Ages. Toronto: Laser Books, 1976.
A barbarian male seeking a mutant beast meets a woman from a highly technical matriarchy named Losalam (from "Los Alamos") where men are relegated to manual labor because they proved incapable of rational thought in the old days during which the holocaust took place, its causes unknown. He shoots down her laser-wielding helicopter with a crossbow. He must heal her when she is bitten by a rattlesnake, and teaches her survival skills. She returns the favor by dressing his arrow wound with a bandage she rips from her coveralls, revealing much of her attractive figure in the process. Menaced by the telepathic beast they are hunting, they can be shielded from its compelling mental lure only by touching each other. Taken to the matriarchy, the barbarian finds it rigid and tradition-bound. He and the woman escape together to Wyoming, his home, and we learn in a final chapter that Normerica is uniting into a single nation, with the stubborn matriarchy still resisting, but the heroine is president of the new Union. Among other common diseases in the new age are cancer, typhoid, scurvy, and smallpox.

Cowper, Richard. Profundis. London: Gollancz, 1979. London: Pan, 1980. New York: Pocket Books, 1981.
The only survivors of a nuclear holocaust in this satire seem to be the thousands of humans and androids on board an enormous submarine which cruises the seas endlessly, its crew conversing with dolphins who collect radiation data. The hero is a simple soul fortuitously provided with psychic superpowers. He is chosen by the commanding officer to reenact the career of Christ, but he ultimately escapes with the aid of his dolphin friends to Madeira, where another pocket of humanity has survived. The nonviolent dolphins, it appears, have been feeding the crew false data all these years to keep the dangerous ship submerged.

Cox, Irving E. "Lady With a Past." Astounding, May 1953.
Half a millenium after the Suicide War the Linkists maintain a sort of cargo cult, expecting the the descendants of refugees from Mars and Venus to return and bring with them the old technology. The legend is recounted in the "Ballad of Alamagordo": For man, we made atomic fire to break the mists of space / He scorned our words and used our strength to kill the human race. / And so we leave your shattered cities, torn and stark with pain. / Destroy yourselves! But save this hope: some day we come again. And indeed they do return, but the Magordo regard themselves as the true heirs of civilization and are bent on exterminating the old human race. Unbeknownst to them, however, Earth has become a rational utopia (based on that of Thomas More), and the female Magordo sent to sterilize the planet for resettlement must be taught that their vicious authoritarianism is inferior to the new way.

Coyle, Harold. Team Yankee. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1987. New York: Berkley, 1988.
Inspired by Sir John Hackett's books ( The Third World War: A Future History [1978] and The Third World War: August 1985, The Untold Story [1982]), this bestselling novel by a U.S. Army major details a few episodes in the life of a single tank company fighting the Russians in Germany during World War III. The novel mentions the nuclear bombing of Birmingham and Minsk, but deals primarily with conventional warfare, emphasizing the chaos and suffering inherent in the battlefield soldier's experience . Hackett reviewed the manuscript and made suggestions. See the comic book version by David Drake and William Jackson: The Alternative Third World War: 1985-2035. Fighting Russian invaders in Germany, told from the point of view of one US Army tank team. The novel uses General Sir John Hackett's scenario, and Hackett gave the author advice and suggestions. The nuclear bombing of Birmingham and Minsk, dealt with briefly in Hackett, is mentioned in passing. Coyle is a US Army major in the armored force. See the comic book version of this novel by David Drake, and compare with William Jackson's The Alternative Third World War, 1985-2035.

Creasey, John. The Insulators. London: Hodder & amp;Stoughton, 1972.
A vast conspiracy succeeds in building insulators which muffle sound and in creating a substance which counteracts radioactivity. When their plant in the English Midlands is discovered, the conspirators blow it up, demonstrating their new tool by rendering the cloud of fallout harmless. A similar research project in Russia is detected and destroyed, thwarting their plans for world domination. The mutual fears of East and West lead to a summit conference in an attempt to promote cooperation.

Crisp, N. J. The Brink. London: MacDonald, 1982. New York: Viking Press, 1982. New York: Pocket Books, 1983.
The Russians in this routine spy thriller gain access to a top-security computer and control over a supposedly fail-safe satellite which enables them to launch and prematurely detonate selected Western nuclear missiles. They use these explosions to justify an invasion of West Germany. Focus on torture, computers. Although the mystery is developed in a complex manner, with much attention given to technical details, the solution is at once simpleminded and farfetched: the program designer was a Russian agent. Unlike the novel by the same name written by John Brunner, this work is hostile to the disarmament movement, relying on a technical fix to prevent war: the building of a better fail-safe system.

Cromie, Robert. The Crack of Doom. London: Digby, 1895.
Madmen plot to destroy the universe with atomic energy. [4]

Crosher, Geoffrey Robins. See Kestavan, G. R.

Croutch, Leslie. "The Day the Bomb Fell" (Amazing Stories, November 1950. Also in Thrilling Science Fiction, February 1972). In John Robert Colombo, ed. Years of Light: A Celebration of Leslie A. Croutch. Toronto: Hounslow Press, 1982.
When a bomb is dropped on a nearby city, a young boy scrambling for his school fallout shelter is knocked into an excavation by the blast wave. When he sees that his school has disappeared, he goes home to find destroyed as well. He befriends a cat, joins a girl in the country where they witness together the burning of her home by invading tanks. He comments ruefully that not too long ago he had been wishing the school would burn down.

Crow, Levi. "Warrior in Darkness." Fantasy and Science Fiction, June 1954.
Indians learn from an alien that they will inherit the Earth when the white men kill each other off in a coming nuclear war.

Crowcroft, Peter. The Fallen Sky. London: P. Neville, 1954.
A sociologist who has lost an eye in a nuclear war wanders through devastated London, fighting off and eating wild dogs. He discovers a teenage girl caring for a group of children, living in the chapel of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. It takes him an improbably long time to discover that the children are blind. He hunts and fishes, and they cook for him. Finally he becomes involved with the girl, but almost frightens her away with fits of brutal passion. They fall into stereotyped sex roles, but she eventually civilizes him. When he takes the oldest boy hunting, he lectures to him on various societies and compares the war to the Kwakiutl potlatch. They struggle against disease, hunger, and other dangers, harvest volunteer crops, and a baby is born. The children report some hunters nearby, but the protagonist decides to avoid them and build a new world without the violence which the hunters represent. The title refers to the children's story of Henny Penny, who thought the sky was falling.

Crowder, Herbert. Ambush at Osirak. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1988. New York: Jove, 1989.
A complex thriller in which a CIA-backed conspiracy succeeds in destroying both Iraqi and Israeli nuclear plants and in forcing the Iraqis to launch and use small Soviet tactical nuclear missiles, resulting in little physical damage but disastrous publicity for the U.S.S.R.

Cullen, Seamus. Astra and Flondrix. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976. New York: Pantheon, 1977. New York: Pocket Books, 1979.
A wild erotic fantasy in which the forces of evil are trapped in a time warp: the endlessly recurring day on which the human era ended with an atomic holocaust. Elves and dwarves use sexual weapons to defeat the monster Kranz who seeks to break out of his trap by creating a new element: Tritertium 333. Bawdy and amusing.

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