Nuclear Holocausts: Atomic War in Fiction

by Paul Brians

Nuclear Holocausts Bibliography: M

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P  R S T U V W Y Z

Table of Contents

MacCreigh, James. See under Pohl.

MacDonald, Andrew [pseud. of William Pierce]. The Turner Diaries. Washington, D.C.: The National Alliance, 1978. 2nd ed., 1980.
An influential work among neo-Nazis. When all guns are confiscated in 1989 and eight hundred thousand citizens are arrested, the time has come for the Organization to begin its plan to overthrow the United States government and eliminate all nonwhites from the Earth. The narrative is told in the form of a diary beginning in 1991, telling of an escalating series of ruthless bombings and robberies, focussing especially on the murder of Jews and blacks. Much of the country is in chaos when the Organization manages to seize Los Angeles and drive out or kill all minorities and hang some sixty thousand whites who have sympathized with them. In the anarchy following the collapse of government, blacks revert to cannibalism and Jews madly plot the nuclear destruction of California. The Organization, attempting to use nuclear blackmail to bring the nation to its knees (they bomb Miami Beach and Charleston, South Carolina), triggers a full-scale nuclear war between the U.S. and USSR which kills about 20 percent of the population. The Organization joins in the fray, bombing both the USSR and Israel; all Jews in those countries are killed in the wake of this attack, and anti-Jewish riots spread across Europe. The narrator accepts the suicide mission of crashing a small plane loaded with a nuclear weapon into the Pentagon. An "epilog" notes that a final atomic bomb was dropped on Toronto to kill Jewish refugees. Europe is conquered and Asia destroyed by chemical and biological weapons. This revolutionary tract is devoid of all ideals save the extermination of nonwhite races. Regret is expressed that the U.S. fought on the wrong side in World War II, the Nazi holocaust is called a myth, and figures like Eichmann are portrayed as martyrs. The Order, the right-wing group implicated in recent violent actions and whose members were brought to trial in Washington state in 1984, and which is known to have studied The Turner Diaries closely, is mentioned in passing.

MacDonald, John D. Ballroom of the Skies. New York: Greenberg, 1952. New York: Gold Medal, 1968. Included in Time and Tomorrow. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, [1980].
After the West supposedly won World War III, it was plunged into poverty- ridden decadence, dominated by Pak-India, one of the three superstates which now controlled the Earth. Events seem to be building toward yet another cataclysm. Most of the plot concerns the building of a network of telepaths, who turn out to be the product of an experiment conducted by a galactic empire. Earth has deliberately been kept primitive and violent to breed the kind of forceful leaders the galaxy needs to defend it against potential invaders from neighboring galaxies: "Men of Earth, being led in a crazy dance of death, for the sake of the high wide ballroom of the skies."

___ . "A Child Is Crying" (Thrilling Wonder Stories, December 1948). In Other Worlds, Other Times. New York: Fawcett, 1978. In Groff Conklin, ed. The Science Fiction Galaxy. New York: PermaBooks, 1950. Also in Isaac Asimov, ed. The Great Science Fiction Stories: 10 (1948). New York: DAW, 1983.
A prescient boy foresees a nuclear war and the survival of superhumans like himself.

MacLean, Katherine. "Interbalance" (Fantasy and Science Fiction, October 1960). In Robert P. Mills, ed. The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction, Tenth Series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1960. New York: Ace, 1965. London: Gollancz, 1963.
After The Radiation an old man trying to educate his son against "the Tide of Advancing Savagery" seeks an antidote to radioactivity. As the son talks to a joyfully uncivilized girl who thinks lots of sex is the best way to restore the race, his father tries unsuccessfully, to shoot her. Science is to be replaced with tribal cosmic wisdom, it seems. This story is like Stephen Minot's Chill of Dusk in its negative portrait of an advocate of the learning of the past, but is comic in tone.

MacLennan, Hugh. Voices in Time. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.
In 2030 civilization has collapsed in the wake of the Great Fear caused by terrorist activities, climaxed by a bomb which kills a half million people and is presumably nuclear. A war using non-nuclear "clean bombs" ensues, and knowledge of the past is suppressed by the survivors. An elderly man traces the stories of two of his ancestors: an abrasive, irresponsible liberal talk show host, and an anti-Nazi German whom the latter mistakenly destroyed. Student radicalism, dope, and rock music create a backlash which brings on the holocaust. This part of the novel is absurd, but the portion set in Nazi Germany is very well done. The author is a well-known Canadian novelist.

Mace, David. Demon 4. London: Panther, 1984. New York: Ace, 1985.
Twenty-two months after a slowly escalating world war culminated in a nuclear holocaust, an international team is trying to destroy a deep-sea fort armed with cobalt bombs, a "limited area doomsday device," accidentally activated by the malfunctioning of its guardian, a trained giant squid. A probe with a human brain--Demon 4--does the job, killing its passenger and sacrificing its own existence in the process. The delicate job of deactivating other forts goes on by other means. Laser weapons and anti-satellite warfare are mentioned. This dryly technical thriller is unusual in featuring several unstereotyped women and a black man.

Madsen, David. U.S.S.A. New York: Morrow, 1989. London: Grafton, 1991.

Malamud, Bernard. God's Grace. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1982. New York: Avon, 1983.
Calvin Cohn, the last human survivor of a nuclear war and ensuing tidal wave, tries to pass civilization on to a group of intelligent chimpanzees. In the end they rebel, kill his half-ape daughter, and ritually slaughter him. The novel abandons all scientific probability by having the atomic holocaust trigger a tidal wave which sweeps all intelligent life from the planet except for Cohn--fortunately on a yacht in the South Pacific at the time of the disaster--and a group of intelligent apes. This incredible tsunami is evidently included so that Malamud can draw parallels with the biblical deluge. A few passages gain a veneer of scientific credibility through their use of Jane Van Lawick-Goodall's studies of chimpanzee behavior; but most of the time Malamud frankly abandons realism by making, for instance, fruit trees bear continuously although there are no insects surviving to pollinate them, and having his hero successfully impregnate a female chimp. The humanist ideal articulated by Cohn is made to look absurd; and the God with whom he speaks, Job-like, offers little insight or consolation. Malamud seems to be saying that civilization is inevitably self-destructive and that it is too late to do anything because the animal within us will overwhelm our better impulses. Much of the narrative reads like a less amusing Portnoy's Complaint with war rather than sex as the main subject. Its theological musings are not strikingly original or effectively conveyed, and trivialize rather than enlarge the theme. Because of the prevailing ironic tone (witness the title), it is hard to care deeply about the religious aspect of the book.

Martel, Suzanne. The City Underground. Originally Quatre Montréalais en l'an 3000. Montréal: Éditions du jour, 1963. Rpt. as Surréal 3,000. Toronto: Macmillan, 1966). Trans. Norah Smaridge. New York: Viking, 1964. New York: Pocket Books, 1975.
In this juvenile adventure story set in 3000 A.D., centuries after the Great Destruction most of the human race lives in a sterile, repressive utopia underground named "Surréal" (from "sous le Mont-Réal") near the St. Lawrence River in Canada. Curious, courageous young boys discover while exploring that the world above is now safe and help to bring together their own English-speaking race with a race of French-speaking surface-dwellers in an obvious parable of Canadian politics.

Martens, Anne Coulter. Pat Frank's Alas, Babylon. Chicago: The Dramatic Publishing Co., 1963.
Play adapted from the novel by Pat Frank, copyrighted by Frank. Scene-by-scene summary follows.
     Act 1, Scene 1: In a small town in central Florida, a gossipy telegraph operator puzzles over telegram sent to local boy Randy by his brother Mark, ending "Alas, Babylon." Randy explains to Lib that Mark works in the Omaha headquarters of the Strategic Air Command and has arranged this phrase to signal the imminent outbreak of nuclear war. Dr. Dan Gunn comes in worried, and Randy discusses the threat of war with Lib. The telegraph message is finally read to him over the phone and we hear the operator's friend reading the relevant passage from Revelation 18. Mark arrives with his wife Helen and teenaged daughter Payton and son Ben. He explains that a joint Chinese-Russian attack threatens. He leaves them with Mark for safety, returning himself to SAC headquarters.
     Act 1, Scene 2: Helen and Lib stock up on food and supplies at the local grocery store. Act 1: Scene 3: In Omaha Mark learns more of the developing international crisis and successfully urges his commanding general to get official permission to launch retaliatory missiles if a strike is launched. This means death for them all. Act 1, Scene 4: Helen and Randy witness a distant explosion, and Civil Defence radio explains that the attack has begun. Ben, though a young teenager, is the best-informed person around, and goes about opening doors and windows to protect against the threat of blast pressure breaking them and speculating about which cities may be hit. When a second, closer bomb goes off Payton is blinded and quickly treated by the doctor.
     Act 2, Scene 1: Later that morning chaos develops at the telegraph office with people irrationally trying to send out messages about banking, investments, etc. All cables except official civil defense messsages are prohibited. Act 2, Scene 2: News comes in of widespread looting. Sugar and batteries are highly valuable. The doctor says local people are dying of fright; but when Payton's eyes are unbandaged it is clear she is recovering her sight. The doctor's clinic was attacked by a gang of addicts in search of drugs. They killed the police chief. On the radio Acting President Mrs. Vanbruuker-Brown announces that reprisals against the attackers continue. It seems likely Mark is dead in Omaha. The scene ends as Orlando is bombed and the electricity fails. Act 2, Scene 3: Ben, fishing discusses the disaster with his sister, speculates about the death of their father. There is a long broadcast list of contaminated areas. Act 2, Scene 4: The people living at Randy's are beginning to learn to cope, salting meat, protecting the chicken coop from a marauding dog. The doctor is ambushed and beaten. With the proclamation of martial law, reservist Randy becomes the local acting authority.
     Act 3, Scene 1: People making swaps value practical goods. Someone wants to trade a Cadillac for two bicycle tires. Batteries are now dead, and no one is sure who won the war. A brainless young woman who's been hording jewelery finds she's been irradiated by a looted ring she was given by her thuggish boyfriend. Act 3, Scene 2: The church choir practices for Eastern services amid rumors that help may be coming and the doctor's pleased announcement that the first normal birth since the war has just taken place. The choir sings. Act 3, Scene 3: Almost a year after the attack people are just discovering useful older artifacts like a treadle sewing machine and a wind-up gramophone. The thuggish looter shows up wanting treatment for his own radiation burns, tries to force the doctor to do so by threatening Lib with a gun, but Randy faces him down. Suddenly a helicopter lands with Decontamination Command personnel bringing word that they are living in the center of the largest safe zone in the contaminated area. They confirm that SAC headquarters was destroyed and talk about the long process of rebuilding ahead. One of the hoped-for developments is atomic power. India, Japan and Brazil are now the Big Three powers. The colonel in charge says that the U.S. won the war, "If you can call that winning." The play ends with Randy proclaiming that they must learn their lesson: no more wars.

Martin, George R. R. ". .  .  for a Single Yesterday." In Roger Elwood and Robert Silverberg, eds. Epoch. New York: Berkley, 1975. Also in Martin. Songs of Stars and Shadows. New York: Pocket Books, 1977. Also in Gardner Dozois, ed. Best Science Fiction Stories of the Year, 1978: 7th Annual Collection. New York: Dutton, 1978.
A folksinger whose girlfriend died in The Blast entertains a rural commune with his nostalgic songs and drugs himself with chronine, which transports him to the past. When a leader with military experience and a strong sense of discipline insists that the drug be used to recover technical knowledge needed for survival (a scheme which largely fails), the singer pines away, steals one last dose and kills himself with sleeping pills, hoping in this way to be permanently reunited with the woman he loved. At the end of the story a new town has been built and new songs glorify the battle of the villagers against a marauding gang. Clearly a farewell to the sixties.

Martin, Graham Dunstan. Time-Slip. London: Orion, 1986.
The nuclear war of 1998, triggered by the unilaterial disarmament of Western Europe and subsequent invasion of West Germany, destroyed eighty-eight percent of the population and blotted out the sun for a month. EMP effects occurred. Now, in 2035, mutations are common and everyone wears useless symbolic anti-radiation suits. Two-thirds of them are sterile, twelve percent are deformed. There is a high suicide rate, infanticide of deformed children is common. In Scotland, religious cults proliferate. The plot concerns the rise of a religion based on the idea of forking time paths which create alternative worlds, at least one of which was spared the horrors of nuclear war. A grim satire on escapism.

Martin-Fehr, J[ohn]. The End of His Tether. [Chichester, England]: Janay, 1972.
A young boy struggles to survive in a savage post-nuclear war England, aided by a kindly and heroic doctor and nun. (This is one of the few novels in which the faith of conventionally religious people is viewed sympathetically, although the author assumes a basically non-religious stance.) An American submarine is said to have started the war by firing a missile at Poland, either by accident or in "an act of insanity." As one character proclaims, "War is a thing of the past," proclaims one character: armies will have their hands full merely burying the dead. Yet individual combat in the form of starving mobs, marauders, and brigands is commonplace. A mob lynches a former Communist. The boy's dog and the horse he has borrowed are both killed for food. Martin-Fehr concentrates to an unusual degree on postwar diseases: typhus, leukemia, blindness, and radiation disease. At the end of the novel an Australian ship arrives to recruit men. Their culture now exercises eugenic control of mutation through sterilization, infanticide, and compulsory childbearing. The Australians, who practice a form of communism, see themselves as the new race which will replace the old. The novel's weaknesses are its repetitiousness and relentlessly grim tone. Its strength is its careful attention to detailing the consequences of a nuclear war.

Martino, Joseph P. "Pushbutton War." Astounding, August 1960.
A highly technical narrative of how the pilot of an interceptor fighter shoots down an incoming ICBM with a nuclear warhead. The hero must discriminate among many fragments of the incoming missile and fire a small atomic missile of his own, reaffirming the importance of human skill and judgment in the era of "pushbutton war."

Martinson, Harry [Edmund]. Aniara: A Review of Man in Time and Space (Aniara: En Revy om Människan i Tid och Rum. Stockholm: Albert Bonnier, 1956.) Adapted from the Swedish by Hugh McDiarmid and Elspeth Harley Schubert. London: Hutchinson, 1963. New York: Knopf, 1964. New York: Avon, 1976.
A group of passengers from Earth on their way to Mars are flung off course to fly forever between the stars. This poem cycle is a powerful evocation of the inevitability and terror of death, considered in its many facets. Six years into their voyage it is revealed that their home city of Dourisburg has been destroyed by a bomb called the "Phototurb"--obviously something like an atomic bomb (Martinson invents a number of new words for his poem). There are many striking passages, such as the following:
And then the blind man started to describe the appalling fiery glare that burned out his eyes. Describe it he couldn't. He mentioned but one detail: He saw with his neck. His whole scalp, flayed open, was an eyeball which, dazzled beyond the bounds of bursting, was lifted, whirled away in blinded trust, in the sleep of death.
     Even more striking is the song of the blind poetess, who describes the conflagration of her homeland as if it were an extraordinary seasonal change, the trees flaming more brightly than is usual in autumn when the leaves turn crimson and purple. War is only one face of death in this book, but the apocalypse threatened by nuclear war clearly lies in back of the poet's theme. This was made into an opera by Carl-Birger Blomdahl in 1959.

Maruki, Toshi[ko]. Hiroshima No Pika. (originally Tokyo: Komine Shoten, 1980.) Trans. Anon. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1982.
A powerful picture book for children telling the experiences of one family caught in the blast of the atomic bomb which hit Hiroshima. The father dies of a lingering form of radiation disease, but the mother survives. The little girl who is the focus of the book stops growing after being exposed to the bomb. Based on the recollections of one woman, it blends together the experiences of many survivors. Illustrated with watercolors by the author. She and her husband Iri created a series of frescos depicting the atomic bombing, reproduced in John W. Dower and John Junkerman. The Hiroshima Murals. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1985.

Mason, Colin. Hostage. New York: Walker, 1973.
A more than usually intelligent thriller about the danger of going over the brink during a crisis. After the Israeli defense minister is shot, an extremist group steals four nuclear weapons given Golda Meir by Nixon in 1969 and sets them off in Cairo. The wounds and agony of the survivors are vividly described in terms reminiscent of Hiroshima. The Russians promptly take over Egypt and the Suez Canal, and threaten to bomb Australia (which unlike Japan and Great Britain has not declared itself neutral--the author is an Australian) unless they are allowed to destroy the state of Israel as well. Much of the narrative depicts the heroism of a young woman doctor from Australia who exposes herself to radiation in a vain attempt to save the lives of others, and of her companion, a mysterious Englishman suspected of being a spy. By great good luck, they find themselves on board the very Russian submarine detailed to bomb Australia. When the U.S. concedes defeat in this battle of brinkmanship, the vessel is taken over by the fanatical Egyptians on board. The hero tries to prevent it, but the renegade's dead hand succeeds in pressing the fatal button, a missile is launched, and the novel ends. Although the plot is farfetched, the characters are believably drawn, the politics are presented in a sophisticated manner alien to the average thriller, and the dangers of nuclear war are seriously discussed. In the vast majority of such works, the bomb is a mere device for raising the stakes in a game of international espionage. Mason's novel belongs rather in the category of the Awful Warning. The Russian sub commander is a relatively sympathetic character, and the Soviet Union is depicted as being governed by essentially rational men. The novel also depicts the failure of evacuation as a plausible means of dealing with a nuclear attack, even when the population is given considerable advance notice.

Masson, David I. "Traveler's Rest" (New Worlds, September 1965). In The Caltraps of Time. London: Faber, 1968. Also in Judith Merril, ed. llth Annual Edition: The Year's Best S-F. New York: Delacorte, 1966. New York: Dell, 1967. Also in Donald A. Wollheim and Terry Carr, eds. World's Best Science Fiction: 1966. New York: Ace, 1966. Also in Robert Silverberg, ed. Voyagers in Time. New York: Meredith, 1967. Also in Michael Moorcock, ed. The Traps of Time. London: Rapp & Whiting, 1968. Also in Michael Moorcock, ed. New Worlds: An Anthology. London: Fontana, 1983.
Civilization is sheltered from the ongoing nuclear war by having it fought in a distant place and time. A soldier gets leave, leads an idyllic life at home for twenty years, and is returned abruptly to the front. Only twenty-two minutes have passed, war time. This is an effective piece of experimental writing.

Matheson, Richard [Burton]. "Pattern for Survival" (Fantasy and Science Fiction, May 1955). In The Shores of Space. New York: Bantam, 1957. London: Corgi, 1958. Also in Anthony Boucher, ed. The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction: Fifth Series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956. New York: Ace, 196l.
A solitary survivor of a nuclear war plays various roles, writing, publishing, and buying his own escape fiction.

Matsubara Hisako. Cranes at Dusk. Originally Abendkranich. Hamburg: Albrecht Kraus, 1981. Trans. from German Hisako Matsubara and Leila Vennewitz. Garden City, New York: Dial, 1985.
Set in Kyoto after World War II. There are passing mentions of the atomic bombings, with details of the effects of the bombs in Chapter 8, and a discussion of the fears of Hibakushas in Chapter 13.

Mauldin, Bill. See under Collier's.

Meek, Capt. S. P. "The Red Peril." Amazing, September 1929.
Atomic-powered airplanes use "radite" weapons with an "atomic disintegrating effect" involving "progressive atomic disintegration" against invading Russian airships. Although the new explosive is a thousand times more powerful than conventional weapons, the Russian ships remain impervious to its effects. A Japanese aviator volunteers for a suicide mission against the Russians, but fails. The Russians bomb the U.S. with disease germs, but are finally defeated when American agents track down the military genius who has invented the new defenses. They torture him into revealing the secret of the Russian defense, and destroy the invading fleet. A revolution overthrows the Russian dictators, and the removal of a clot from his brain cures the Russian leader of his evil ways.

Mayhar, Ardath. The World Ends in Hickory Hollow. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1985.
A sort of nuclear war version of The Swiss Family Robinson. A Vietnam veteran finds his skills useful as he and his family struggle to survive in rural East Texas after civilization has been destroyed in a nuclear preemptive strike. The family emphasizes self-reliance, the rejection of governmental authority, and the importance of children. They have to deal with a vicious gang of marauding women.
McCaffrey, Anne. Dragonsdawn.

McCammon, Robert. Swan Song. New York: Pocket Books, 1987. London: Sphere, 1988. City?: Dark Harvest, 1989.
The first part of this lengthy novel is a detailed account of the increasing use of nuclear weapons in regional conflicts leading up to a devastating holocaust which precipitates a lengthy nuclear winter. It is unclear which side struck first. A group of survivalists sheltering in an underground mountain retreat are destroyed by an errant U.S. missile. The second part is a fantastic horror story in which the devil roams the wasted landscape, encouraging the survivors self-destructive impulses. A mad Vietnam veteran turns into a fascist marauder, exterminating those who bear keloid scars. A disfiguring facial disease creates masks which crack and fall off to reveal the good people as beautiful, the bad as ugly. A doomsday machine designed to melt the polar ice caps and knock the earth of its axis is prevented from exploding by a young girl with psychic powers, and peace and hope are restored.

McCann, Edson [pseud. of Lester del Rey and Frederick Pohl]. Preferred Risk (Galaxy, June, July, August, September 1955). New York: Simon & Schuster, 1955. New York: Dell, 1962. New York: Ballantine, 1980.
After the devastating Short War, a gigantic U.S. insurance firm called "the Company" rules the world. It has forced all other nations to break up into small city-states which now war on each other. The Company's publicly announced policy is to end war as a bad risk; but the head of the firm has been deposed and replaced with a tyrant who aims at world domination. The setting is Italy, where there was a recent nuclear war between Naples and Sicily in which a bomb was dropped down the crater of Vesuvius and the ruins of Pompeii exude a radioactive glow. The protagonist is a claims adjuster who becomes involved with a young woman from the underground plotting in the Roman catacombs to overthrow the Company. Although thousands of people are stored underground in suspended animation, purportedly being treated for radiation disease; many of them are simply enemies of the Company, including the young woman's father. A madman among the revolutionaries launches a cobalt doomsday bomb designed to destroy the entire human race; the population will be suspended for fifty years until the Earth is fit to inhabit again, and the Company will be rendered bankrupt by the ensuing claims. Aided by the amazing Zorchi, whose mutated limbs spontaneously regenerate and who cannot be put out of action by the enemy, the protagonist and his allies revive the rightful head of the firm and thwart the plot by salvaging humanity, convinced that a reformed Company will be needed to maintain order in the world a half-century hence. This novel is reminiscent of other Pohl satires on bureaucracy like The Space Merchants (1952, co-authored with Cyril M. Kornbluth).

McCarthy, Cormac. The Road. New York: Knopf, 2006
A moving postholocaust narrative consisting largely of dialogue between a man and his son scouring the burned and wasted landscape for scraps of food and fuel, dealing with robbers, cannibals, and other villains. All animal life seems to have disappeared. Nothing specific is said about nuclear weapons, but it is fairly clear that only a nuclear war could have caused the devastation depicted. The novel won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for fiction.

McCloy, Helen. See Clarkson. McCutchan, Philip. Bowering's Breakwater. London: Harrap, 1964. Bolton-by-Bowland, Lancashire: Magna Print, 1964 (large-type edition).
When a nuclear war breaks out as an atomic-powered British passenger ship sets sail from Australia for home, its captain decides to take his passengers to an uninhabited atoll in the South Pacific to wait out the disaster. He is opposed by an obstreperous old buffoon of a retired general who wants to return to England to do his duty. On the atoll, they meet a party of stranded Chinese soldiers who seize their ship. The rest of the novel concerns the struggle between the two nationalities and the building of a breakwater to protect the vessel from the coming monsoons. Radiation sickness spreads, a last revolt by the British succeeds, and faint signals from outside indicate that at least some life is continuing. They sail away, but into what kind of world, they know not. The novel contains a fairly detailed discussion of the distinctions between conventional warfare and nuclear war and of the inappropriateness of traditional wartime attitudes.

___. A Time for Survival. London: Harrap, 1966.
A relentlessly grim account of the odyssey of a small party of survivors of a Chinese nuclear attack on Great Britain. Begins with a man in his fifties and his beautiful young wife pushing their new baby in a pram through the blackened landscape. They are joined by a navy deserter and form an intense triangle. Later they join others, kill invading Chinese soldiers, and briefly seize a transmitter to alert the American navy to their existence. The few of them remaining at novel's end are caught in the open when a retaliatory nuclear bomb goes off near them, and they run, panic-stricken, for the sea. This unusually pessimistic novel portrays an almost entirely devastated countryside, and utterly destroyed cities. Argues for the superiority of some qualities of the common laborer over those of the intellectual. The title of the novel is ironic, for despite the fact that the protagonists commit several violent acts in the name of survival, they do not in fact survive.

McDougall, A. Neale. Attitude. New York: Vantage, 1970.
This preachy novel alternates between lectures to young students about the past and the love stories of the same students. A war which began in the year 2000 killed half of Earth's population and began a century-long dark age which had some salutary effects: the "holocaust .  .  . burned away all of the economic rot, cancelled all the bad debts!" Modern America is a debilitated remnant of the old American civilization, and is contrasted with the idyllic Federation of thirteen Asian states where much of the novel is set. A subplot deals with the struggles of a young male to overcome his tendency toward violence and learn how to love. America is diagnosed as having destroyed itself through its bad attitude--hence the title.

McGaughy, Dudley Dean. See Dean Owen.

McGowen, Tom. The Magician's Apprentice. New York: Lodestar, 1987.
First volume of the series. Hundreds of years after "the Fire from the Sky" caused the 100-day-long Winter of Death, a neomedieval culture considers pre-holocaust science to have been magic. A young boy becomes the apprentice of a magician who practices simple herbal healing and fortunetelling. Together they discover some examples of ancient magical technology: a telescope, a compass, etc.

___ . The Magician's Challenge. New York: Lodestar, 1989.
Third volume of the series. The magician helps lead a war to exterminate the rat-mutants, using the newly reinvented Molotov cocktail; but a peaceful strain of the mutants unexpectedly emerges, defeats those bent on human genocide, and leads the rest of its race to live a peaceful, separate existence in the wasteland. At the end of the novel humans are bent on recovering the old science, and seem destined to do so.

___ . The Magician's Company. New York: Lodestar, 1988.
Second volume of the series. One of the ancient artifacts they have discovered is a device designed to hand on the knowledge accumulated by the pre-holocaust world. Meanwhile, humanity is threatened by a horde of intelligent mutant rats bent on world supremacy.

McLaughlin, John. Toolmaker Koan. New York: Baen, 1988.
Intelligent dinosaur-descended beings from Earth's distant past destroyed their civilization in a prehistoric war. An intelligent machine brings some of them to our time to stop humans from plunging over the brink of a holocaust. The theory is propounded that all intelligent races tend to destroy themselves. The novel is set thirteen years after the "One-Day War," an abortive thermonuclear conflict which divided the world into East-West spheres. Another war using smuggled weapons breaks out. EMP is dealt with and the prospect of nuclear winter is described in very detailed form. The two races finally merge to transcend their doom. Cf. Gregory Benford, Across the Sea of Suns.

McMahon, Thomas. Principles of American Nuclear Chemistry: A Novel. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
A well-written account of the recollections of the son of a fictional nuclear physicist who worked on the atomic bomb project, first at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and later at Los Alamos. Focusses mostly on his fascination with his father's mistress and on details of his own teenaged sexual initiation. Although the science is well presented by the scientist-author, the novel has little to do with the actual bomb-building project.

McManus, James. Chin Music. New York: Crown, 1985. Sections previously published in Another Chicago Magazine, Bi-City, New Directions, Oink!, Syncline, TriQuarterly, Zero One, and Chicago.
An amnesiac baseball player, his son, and his wife all struggle toward home as a nuclear attack creates chaos in the city by cutting off electricity, causing traffic james, fires, and widespread looting and violence. A montage of vividly depicted scenes filled with violence and sex seems to treat nuclear war not realistically, but as a metaphor for cultural disintegration. All three finally reach home: the protagonist to die, his son to leave with his new girlfriend, and his wife to be left listening to Beethoven's "Grosse Fugue," waiting for the light.

McGuire, John J., and H. Beam Piper. See under Piper.

McIntosh, J. T. [pseud. of James Murdock MacGregor]. Born Leader. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1954. London: Museum, 1955. London: Corgi, 1961. Rpt. as Worlds Apart. New York: Avon, 1958.
Peaceful refugees from an Earth destroyed by nuclear war and nuclear power- caused pollution have been conditioned against all forms of atomic energy. The younger generation which has grown up in peace on a new planet is able to make the point that atomic power has its uses when another shipload of humans--vicious, and uninhibited about the use of atomic energy--invades and threatens to destroy them. Salvaging the motors of the ship that brought them from Earth, the colonists create atomic ray weapons which subdue the invaders while sparing their lives. In the end the younger generation dreams of going on to colonize other worlds.

McIntyre, Vonda. Dreamsnake (first portion originally as "Of Mist, Grass, and Sand" Analog, October 1973). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978. New York: Dell, 1979. London: Gollancz, 1978. London: Pan, 1979. Sequel to The Exile Waiting.
The moving tale of a young healer trying to create humanity in a savage postholocaust world. Stresses the power of love and compassion. Strong feminist themes, excellent characterization.

___ . The Exile Waiting. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1976. Sequel: Dreamsnake.
Inside a fallout shelter city built before the devastating Last War, a young girl survives as a telepathic thief within a cruelly decadent culture modeled on Imperial Rome. After several adventures and narrow escapes, the heroine succeeds in her goal of leaving Earth. The novel contains very little about the effects of nuclear war.

McLaughlin, John C. The Helix and the Sword. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983. New York: TOR, 1984.
Six thousand years after the Earth was rendered uninhabitable by nuclear and biological warfare over petroleum, civilization survives in synthetic organic living space colonies organized along feudal lines, battling relentlessly with each other. One group plots to destroy its enemies by smuggling lethal micro-organisms into its enemies' environments. It incidentally discovers that the long-tabooed Earth has recovered from the devastation called "the Closing" and that various species descended from mutated rats have filled many ecological niches. In a switch on the last-man-and-woman theme, a male and female explorer mate on the restored planet's surface. Nuclear weapons are not specifically mentioned; the only clues are the dust clouds which enveloped the Earth for centuries and the rapid evolution of the rats, which implies a high level of radioactivity.

McMahon, Mike. The Cursed Earth. See Mills, Pat.

McQuinn, Donald E. Warrior. New York: Del Rey, 1990.

Merak, A. J. The Dark Millenium. New York: Arcadia House, 1966.
The opening of this novel is a vivid and effective treatment of the impact of bombs resulting from an accidental first strike by the Russians. Characters are briefly sketched and then annihilated in one spot after another. Radiation, including contamination by cobalt and strontium 90, kills most of the human race. Aliens named the "Vorzan" who have been observing the Earth for twenty thousand years land and capture seven survivors to use as guinea pigs. They are placed in suspended animation and released two or three at a time over a thousand years to determine whether the planet is yet safe for Vorzan colonization. All other races in the universe, say the Vorzan, destroy themselves with nuclear weapons when they are developed; the Vorzan alone are an exception: they have survived for one hundred thousand years, but only at the price of "stagnation" (not defined). Early pairs of humans released find mutated savage descendants of humanity, but the last two locate an advanced civilization buried under the Antarctic ice and use missiles left behind by some of the now-extinct mutants to destroy the Vorzan fleet--all except for the main ship, which is fortuitously destroyed by the impact of Explorer VII, a satellite launched in 1960 and whose orbit is now decaying. How the brutal Vorzan managed to resist the universal temptation to self-annihilation through nuclear warfare is not explained and renders the novel rather pointless.

Meredith, Richard C. "Hired Man" (If:, February 1970). In Joe Haldeman, Charles G. Waugh, and Martin Harry Greenberg, eds. Body Armor: 2000. New York: Ace, 1986.
Hired mercenaries battle other human colonists with miniature atomic bombs on an alien world.

Merle, Robert. Malevil. Originally Paris: Gallimard, 1972. Trans. Derek Coltman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973.
On Zero Day a small group is accidentally sheltered deep in a medieval castle and emerges into a blasted world where a few survivors gather to reinvent the feudal world on a small scale, including conflict between the secular and sacred authorities. Remarkably little attention is paid to the larger consequences of the bomb which killed most nearby people. No radioactivity is ever detected. It is hypothesized that a single "clean" bomb was detonated high over Paris, but no one ever investigates the truth of this supposition. None of the characters so much as turns on a radio to try to find out what has happened to the outside world. The bomb seems merely an excuse for inventing a scale-model experiment in feudalism, with interesting characters and plot, but with practically no relevance to the theme of nuclear war. Merle is also the author of The Day of the Dolphin (1967).

Merril, Judith. Shadow on the Hearth. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1950. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1953. London: Compact, 1966.
This novel narrowly focuses on a mother with two daughters, separated from her husband who was caught away from home when the bomb fell. Much detail is given about radiation disease, the need for uncontaminated food and water, and the special vulnerability of children. Domestic details, depiction of the relationship of mother and daughters--one of whom is clearly more mature and capable than her rather silly and ignorant mother--are handled excellently. This novel could be read either as antifeminist (women need men around in an emergency) or feminist (women should know more about science and technology so they can take care of themselves). Good depiction of the way in which the young wife is heartlessly harassed by a civil defense worker who is attracted to her, disregarding the grief she feels for her missing husband. The novel is unusual for the period in that it also emphasizes the necessity of opposing mindless Redbaiting. The two men the heroine shelters are security risks in the eyes of the government. Sabotage is greatly feared because the bombs are guided by enemy agents on the ground. Nevertheless, the U.S. "wins." As the title implies, this is a specifically "woman's view" of the danger of nuclear war. It was made into a television drama entitled Atomic Attack, ABC, 1954. See Albert I. Berger, "Love, Death, and the Atomic Bomb: Sexuality and Community in Science Fiction, 1935-55," Science-Fiction Studies 8 (1981): 292. [More, More, More & More]

___ . "That Only a Mother" (Astounding, June 1948). In Out of Bounds. New York: Pyramid, 1960. Also in The Best of Judith Merril. New York: Warner, 1976. Also in Robert Silverberg, ed. The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Vol. 1. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970. Also in Pamela Sargent, ed. Women of Wonder. New York: Vintage, 1975. Also in Harvey A. Katz, Patricia Warrick and Martin Harry Greenberg, eds. Introductory Psychology Through Science Fiction. Skokie, Ill.: Rand McNally, 1974. Also in James E. Gunn, ed. The Road to Science Fiction #3: From Heinlein to Here. New York: Mentor, 1979. Also in Damon Knight, ed. First Flight. New York: Lancer, 1963. Revised Damon Knight, Martin H. Greenberg and Joseph D. Olander, eds. First Voyages. New York: Avon, 1981. Also in Isaac Asimov, Martin H. Greenberg and Joseph D. Olander, eds. Space Mail. New York: Fawcett, 1980. Space Mail was incorporated into Isaac Asmov, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds. Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Treasury. New York: Bonanza, 1980. Also in Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg, eds. The Great Science Fiction Stories: 10 (1948). New York: DAW, 1983. Also in H. Bruce Franklin, ed. Countdown to Midnight: Twelve Great Stories About Nuclear War. New York: DAW, 1984.
An eagerly anticipated birth is recounted joyously in letters by mother to her absent husband in letters. The baby is preternaturally precocious. When the father returns home, he finds the mother mad, the baby a mutated monster as a result of atomic bombing. See Justine Larbalestier: "The New York Nexus and American Science Fiction in the Postwar Period" in Extrapolation vol. 43, no. 3 (Fall 2002), pp. 277-287., [More & More]

Miklowitz, Gloria. After the Bomb. New York: Scholastic, 1984.
A sixteen-year-old boy becomes a hero when Los Angeles is accidentally attacked by the Russians with a nuclear missile. He happens to be in the family fallout shelter with his older brother and the girl they both are pursuing, when the bomb falls. When his older brother panics, the hero rescues his badly wounded mother, helps the nurses at a nearby hospital, and arranges to pump water from swimming pools to the hospital tank. He fights to get his mother a place on an evacuation helicopter and finally sets off, leading his brother in search of their father. Although this youth novel does not depict a full-scale war, it is a carefully researched account of how devastating a nuclear attack would be to medical and other services. The author provides a list of sources.

Miller, Walter M[ichael] Jr. A Canticle for Leibowitz. From a trilogy of stories originally published in Fantasy and Science Fiction: "A Canticle for Leibowitz," April 1955; "And the Light Is Risen," August 1956; "The Last Canticle," February 1957, retitled for book as "Fiat Homo," "Fiat Lux," and "Fiat Voluntas Tua." New York: Lippincott, 1959. New York: Bantam, 196l. Boston: Gregg, 1975. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1960.
Three related stories of a post-nuclear war future, which begin in a new dark age in which the Catholic church revives its old role as preserver of ancient knowledge. In the end, a rebuilt civilization plunges again into another nuclear war. Horribly deformed products of postholocaust radiation roam the landscape and are referred to sardonically as "the Pope's children" because of the refusal of the pontiff to allow the killing of even the most grotesque. But most of the population in the novel is not Catholic and evidently feels no such inhibition. An old woman named Mrs. Grales has a head with an alternate personality (Rachel) growing out of her shoulder, and frets because the priest refuses to recognize it as having a distinct soul needing christening. In the end Rachel emerges as the dominant personality when the simple piety of the old woman is rendered irrelevant by the combination of the inflexibility of the church and the horror of nuclear war. One of the best-written, most thoughtful explorations of the theme. Adapted as a play, 1967. See Fuller, Clark. Dramatized and broadcast by National Public Radio in 1983. See Walker Percy: "Walker Percy on Walter M. Miller, Jr.'s A Canticle for Leibowitz," in David Madden, ed., Rediscoveries (New York: Crown, 197l), 262-69. Also Hugh Rank, "Song Out of Season: A Canticle for Leibowitz," Renascence 2l (1969): 2l3-2l; David N. Samuelson: "The Lost Canticles of Walter M. Miller, Jr.," in Science-Fiction Studies 3 (1976): 3-26; Robert Scholes and Eric S. Rabkin, Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision (New York: Oxford, 1977), 22l-26; and Judith A. Spector, "Walter Miller's A Canticle for Leibowitz: A Parable for Our Time?" Midwest Quarterly 220 (1981): 337-45; and Dominic Manganiello, "History as Judgment and Promise in A Canticle for Leibowitz," Science-Fiction Studies 13 (1986): 159-69. :In Magill, 1, 288-293. Paul Brians: Study Guide for Walter M. Miller, Jr.: A Canticle for Leibowitz (1959) [More, More & More]

___ . "Crucifixus Etiam" (Astounding, Feb., 1953). In The View from the Stars. New York: Ballantine, 1965. London: Gollancz, 1965. London: Panther, 1966. Also in The Science Fiction Stories of Walter M. Miller, Jr. Boston: Gregg, 1978. Also in The Best of Walter M. Miller, Jr. New York: Pocket Books, 1980. Also in E. F. Bleiler and T. E. Dikty, eds. The Best Science-Fiction Stories, 1954. New York: Fell, 1954. Rpt. as The Best Science Fiction Stories: Fifth Series. London: Grayson, 1956 (story retitled "The Sower Does Not Reap"). Also in Michael Sissons, ed. Asleep in Armageddon. London: Panther, 1962. Also in Kingsley Amis and Robert Conquest, eds. Spectrum 5. London: Gollancz, 1966. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1967. New York: Harcourt, 1967. New York: Berkley, 1968. Also in Bonnie L. Heintz, Frank Herbert, Donald A. Joos, and Jane Agorn McGee, eds. Tomorrow, and Tomorrow, and Tomorrow. . . . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1974. Also in Gregory Fitz Gerald and John Dillon, eds. The Late Great Future. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1976.
In this tale of the colonization of Mars, brief mention is made of "the radioactive craters of Russia" as one of Earth's tourist attractions.

___ . "Dumb Waiter" (Astounding, April 1952). In The View from the Stars. New York: Ballantine, 1965. London: Gollancz, 1965. London: Panther, 1968. Also in The Science Fiction Stories of Walter M. Miller, Jr. Boston: Gregg, 1978. Also in The Best of Walter M. Miller, Jr. New York: Pocket Books, 1980. Also in Groff Conklin, ed. Science Fiction Thinking Machines. New York: Vanguard, 1954. Also in Selections from Science Fiction Thinking Machines. New York: Bantam, 1955. Also in Damon Knight, ed. Cities of Wonder. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. Also in Robert Silverberg, ed. Alpha 9. New York: Berkley, 1978.
Three years after they have run out of weapons, automatically guided planes continue to make bombing runs. The cities are still radioactive. One is inhabited mostly by robots run by a central computer which must be reprogrammed by the protagonist to allow the city to flourish again and defeat saboteurs who would destroy it.

___. "Izzard and the Membrane" (Astounding, May 195l). In E. F. Bleiler and T. E. Dikty, eds. The Best Science-Fiction Stories 1952. New York: Fell, 1952. Rpt. as The Best Science Fiction Stories: Third Series. London: Grayson, 1953.
When the Russians overrun Europe, an American physicist is captured and forced to create for them a brilliant computer (named "Izzard") to guide their nuclear attack on the U.S. He recreates and then loses again the wife and children killed in the ensuing battle and manages to thwart his captors' victory through the manipulation of Izzard and a force field (the membrane). A godlike being contacted through the computer transports him to another world where he can start life over again with edition number three of his family. This crude pseudoscientific thriller gives no hint of the genius which was to produce Leibowitz.

___ . "The Little Creeps" (Amazing, December 195l). In Milton Lesser, ed. Looking Forward. New York: Beechhurst Press, 1953. London: Cassell, 1955.
An American general based in Japan faces a dilemma when his air marshal schemes to simulate a Russian attack in order to justify an all-out attack on enemy cities. When the USSR declares war, he thinks of sending his wife home, then realizes she will be in more danger there. He is haunted by mysterious beings who speak to him through his radio. At first they seem like figments of his tormented imagination, but they prove to be visitors from a parallel world of the future, trying to intervene and prevent the impending nuclear war because "Your releases of energy correspond to the appearance of mass in our world-space." The story ends as an attack begins and the general goes mad.

Milán, Victor. The Cybernetic Samurai. New York: Arbor House, 1985.
After World War III, Japan has survived better than any other industrialized nation. It was hit by only five warheads, whereas the U.S. has disintegrated into smaller states. Even as another nuclear war looms, a brilliant woman scientist who was exposed to heavy radiation in the bombing of Denver and who mysteriously escaped death, designs a super-intelligent, self-aware computer named TOKUGAWA which is being trained according to the traditional Samurai code to be the perfect war machine by being put through a series of scenarios from the past, one of which is the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. As World War IV breaks out, the computer rejects its role as warrior and becomes instead a new Shogun, protecting and uniting all Japan under its benevolent rule. When the nation's leaders try to force the computer, against its conscience, to conquer the rest of the world, it takes the traditional path of the Samurai, committing sepukku by blowing itself up with a small atomic bomb.

Milligan, Spike, and John Antrobus. The Bedsitting Room. Walton-on-Thames: Margaret & Jack Hobbs, 1970.
A surreal absurdist drama in which the Nuclear Misunderstanding which led to World War III (lasting two minutes, twenty-eight seconds) killed forty-eight million people and produced a number of bizarre side effects: one man is turned into a bedsitting room (studio apartment), the monarch into a chest of drawers, and Harold Wilson into a parrot. The British deterrent was ineffective because it was mailed to the Russians with insufficient postage, and was returned. In the last act, three years after the war, desperate people are eating their children under the menace of radioactive fog attacks, and fewer than a thousand survive.

Mills, Pat (script), Brian Bolland, and Mike McMahon (art). The Cursed Earth. 2 vols. London: Titan, 1982.
One of several adventures featuring the Judge Dredd character from the British comic book 2000 A.D., reprinted in soft covers. Originally appeared in twenty-five weekly episodes in the magazine published by I.P.C. An idealistic but violent supercop who ordinarily rides a huge motorcycle takes on the task of driving a supertank across an atomic wasteland from Mega-City One to Mega-City Two to deliver vaccine needed to cure a plague left over from bacteriological warfare which succeeded a nuclear war. He is aided by one Spikes Harvey Rotten, a savage criminal who earns parole by accompanying Dredd. They also encounter and form an alliance with Tweak, a lovable alien who--despite his high intelligence--has been made a slave by brutal humans. On their way, they encounter many weirdly mutated monsters (including artificially reborn dinosaurs) and villagers with bigoted religious beliefs who to kill the heroes. Rotten, courageous but too evil to deserve pardon, is killed according to the standard formula of popular fiction for such characters. Much of the plot seems straightforwardly borrowed from Roger Zelazny's Damnation Alley. Other Judge Dredd adventures share the same postholocaust setting.

Minot, Stephen. Chill of Dusk. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
A vivid account of the decline of a community into barbarism a century after a nuclear war and the ensuing collapse of civilization. A tyrannical teacher tries in vain to preserve the learning of the past, but Catholic missionaries are more successful, providing a structure for peoples' lives, if not a faith. Wolves and raiders are constant threats. Finally, cruel sun-worshippers take over the colony and sacrifice the teacher's daughter. Little is said about the war: only the mention of a flash and the birth of a deformed baby point to a nuclear conflict. Although the novel is powerfully written, it is difficult to determine the author's point of view. Neither traditional education nor the return to illiterate primitivism is presented sympathetically.

Mitchison, Naomi. "Out of the Waters." In Harry Harrison, ed. Nova 4. New York: Walker, 1974. New York: Manor, 1977. London: Sphere, 1976. London: Robert Hale, 1977.
The dolphins tell how they tried to prevent humanity from destroying itself in a nuclear war, even when the navy attempted to use them as living torpedoes. A holocaust has exterminated the human race, except for a few in the far north and south whom the dolphins hope to reeducate to build a better world in another thousand years or so. Compare Leo Szilard's The Voice of the Dolphins, in which these peaceful creatures are more successful in their disarmament efforts.

Mitsuhara Inoue. The House of Hands. First published 1960. Trans. Frederick Uleman and Koichi Nakagawa. In Kenzaburo Oe, ed. The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath. (Original Japanese edition, Nen to mo shirenai mirai ni. Tokyo: Shueisha Press, 1984.) New York: Grove, 1985.
Depicts the health problems caused by exposure to the bomb of a group of girls from a Catholic orphanage in Nagasaki, one of whom dies.

Monsarrat, Nicholas. The Time Before This. London: Cassell, 1962. London: Pan, 1965. New York: Sloane, 1962. New York: Pocket Books, 1966.
An old man on the frontier of Canada tells a tale of discovering a gigantic food storehouse in the wilderness, inhabited by frozen, scaly-skinned men. He insists they were a prehistoric race wiped out in a great war involving atomic bombs. Monsarrat is also the author of The Tribe That Lost Its Head (1956).

Monteleone, Thomas F. [pseud. of David Bischoff]. Guardian. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980. New York: Fawcett, 1981. Sequel: Ozymandius.
The Final War has taken place over two thousand years ago, tilting the Earth's axis and drastically altering the climate. The plot concerns a quest to find the world's sole remaining military supercomputer in a war-blasted world. When the protagonists reach their goal, they are confronted with a series of tests based on various Greek myths: the judgment of Paris, Orpheus and Euridice, the sacrifice of Iphigenia, and Pandora's Box. The computer, obsessed with its guilt for having slaughtered the inhabitants of a city in the wake of the holocaust, tries to understand humanity through mythology and offers to expiate its guilt by helping to rebuild the world with the technology it still possesses.

___. Ozymandius. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981. Sequel to Guardian.
In a setting twenty years later than Guardian, the computer acquires a superhuman body, begets a son, and is welcomed as a messianic figure destined to lead a new, worldwide holy war. Appalled at the prospect, he commits suicide, but the boy lives on.

___. Seeds of Change. Don Mills, Ont.: Laser, 1975.
A prologue tells of the fall of civilization through nuclear war and the painful ascent of humanity from savagery. The rest of the novel narrates the revolt of good country-dwellers against the vile, computer-dominated domed urban dystopia. The rebels are aided fortuitously by long-stranded colonists arriving from Mars to whom an alien race has given high technology. In the end the city commits suicide with nerve gas and hope is seen for the future of the country-dwellers.

___ and John DeChancie. Crooked House. New York: Tor, 1987.
A ghost story in which a young architect is lured to work on a bizarre mansion haunted by the victims of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.

Montgomery, R. A. Trio: Rebels in the New World, Book 4: The Hidden Evil. New York: Bantam, 1990.
The United States signed a disarmament treaty in 1995, but hid six bombs. In 2015, after a nuclear holocaust, the young heroes struggle for possession of the weapons which have been secreted away, aided by aliens from a flying saucer.

___ . Trio: Rebels in the New World, Book 4: Escape from China. New York: Bantam, 1990.
A mad nuclear scientist allied with Mongol invaders has rediscovered the ancient secret of Atlantis: the ability to focus stellar energy with crystals much New-Agey use of themes like terrestrial lines of force. Contrary to the introduction printed in each of these volumes, China is said to have survived its war with the USSR well.

Moorcock, Michael. "The Mountain" (New Worlds, February 1965). In The Time Dweller. London: Hart-Davis, 1969. Also in Judith Merril, ed. England Swings SF: Stories of Speculative Fiction. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968.
The last two men on Earth survive in Lapland where freak weather has kept away fallout. They track a woman up a mountain, only to find that she has jumped off onto a glacier and killed herself. One of them follows suit. "The last man alive peacefully waited for death." Quite well written.

Moore, C[atherine] L. Doomsday Morning. Original publication: 1957. New York: Popular Library, 1987.
A down-and-out actor inadvertently becomes involved in a plot to overthrow a media-centered dictatorship which took over after the devastating Five Days War.

___. See also Kuttner, Henry and Catherine L. Moore.

Moore, Ward. "Flying Dutchman." In K[endell] F[oster] Crossen, ed. Adventures in Tomorrow. New York: Greenberg, 195l. New York: Belmont, 1968 (omitted from British 1953 edition). Rpt. in Fantasy and Science Fiction, September 1956. Also in Tom Boardman, Jr., ed. Science Fiction Stories. London: Octopus, 1979.
The automated bomber of the title is still going out on runs over an Earth long since rendered lifeless.

­­­___. "Lot" (Fantasy and Science Fiction, May 1953). In Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas, eds. The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction, Third Series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday 1954. New York: Ace, 1960. Also in Brian Aldiss, ed. The Penguin Science Fiction Omnibus. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974. Also in H. Bruce Franklin, ed. Countdown to Midnight: Twelve Great Stories About Nuclear War. New York: DAW, 1984. Also in Walter M. Miller, Jr. and Martin H. Greenberg, eds. Beyond Armageddon: Twenty-one Sermons to the Dead. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1985. Sequel: "Lot's Daughter."
A reworking of the theme of the flight from Sodom. The protagonist has a hard time convincing his dithering idiot of a wife to flee the coming atomic attack. Whining sons try to get him to stop his flight from imperiled Santa Barbara so they can go to the bathroom. The wife and sons are depicted as incredibly stupid and obnoxious. The wife, worried about a former love, is sent to use the phone at a gas station, and the father drives off with his sexy fourteen-year-old daughter, abandoning the rest of the family. According to Peter Nicholls's Encyclopedia, this story was the basis for the 1962 film Panic In the Year Zero.

___ . "Lot's Daughter" (Fantasy and Science Fiction, October 1954). In Robert P. Mills, ed. A Decade of Fantasy and Science Fiction. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1960. New York: Dell, 1962. Sequel to "Lot."
This sequel is set six years later. The protagonist has had a son by his daughter, but she proves she has inherited his own instinct for self-preservation by abandoning him and her child. In both of these stories, the father is presented sympathetically, for the most part; but Moore doesn't seem to have established any clear point of view about the morality of the situation. In the first story he implies the incest is justifiable; in the second that it leads naturally to disaster. He seems more to be playing with the concept than seriously making a point.

Moran, Daniel Keys. The Armageddon Blues. New York: Bantam, 1988.
A young woman travels back in time from the 28th century to forestall a nuclear Armageddon in 2007 known as The Big Crunch, a disaster which led to a prolonged nuclear winter and a five hundred year dark age. In her own time, women are warrior/hunters, and men are blamed for the war and are not allowed to fight. Radioactive fires st ill burn and mutants exist. She joins forces with a two-century old immortal who ultimately tries to trigger the war she is trying to prevent, as a means of ending his burdensomely long life.

Morgan, Dan. Inside. London: Corgi, 197l. New York: Berkley, 1974.
For most of the novel the reader believes that subjects of an experimental project on Mars are deluded by scientists into believing that they live in a shelter on an Earth devastated by nuclear holocaust. At the end it transpires that the holocaust really happened and that both subjects and scientists have been kept alive on Mars by an alien race which has been rehabilitating Earth. Indeed, humanity has been saved twice before; but interstellar society has decided not to intervene again and to quarantine Earth for one thousand years.

Morgan-Ryan, Kathryn. "The Present." See under Collier's.

Morris, Edita. The Flowers of Hiroshima. London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1959. London: Four Square, 196l. New York: Viking, 1959. New York: Marzini & Munsell, 1960. Sequel: Seeds of Hiroshima.
Fourteen years after the end of World War II, a young American boards with a family in Hiroshima, where his hostess tries to conceal both her desperate need for the money he pays and the effects they still suffer from the atomic bomb. Her attempts to act cheerful--while her younger sister mourns their dead mother and while her husband is dying--are movingly depicted. After the admirable young man gains the woman's confidence, she confides to him the horrors they have experienced, explaining that bomb victims are discriminated against by other Japanese. The sister runs away to avoid the risk of bearing deformed children by the man she loves. A great deal of attention is paid to the details of Japanese culture and the ways in which it differs from that of the West. A note on the cover explains that the author and her husband "started a rest house and recreation center in Hiroshima for the benefit of the survivors of the atomic bomb. They have also occupied themselves actively in the anti-nuclear-warfare campaign in England and in France." According to Morris's entry in Contemporary Authors, The Flowers of Hiroshima was translated into twenty-six languages. Compare with Edwin Lanham, The Clock at 8:16. The novel is also comparable to Masuji Ibuse's Black Rain, but without his sardonic wit and with simpler characters.

___ . The Seeds of Hiroshima. London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1965. New York: Braziller, 1965. Sequel to The Flowers of Hiroshima.
The protagonist travels to Tokyo with a local doctor who is speaking to a bomb protest rally. There she is reunited with the American, Sam, and realizes she loves him. They make love on the beach, agree to marry, but return to Hiroshima to find that her sister Ohatsu has given birth to a horribly deformed son. Ohatsu leaps off a cliff with her baby, and her husband enters a monastery. The protagonist resolves never to marry, begging forgiveness of her sister's corpse. As they wait for her body to be cremated, she reflects: "How long it takes to burn up a young girl! One would think that her slender body would be consumed in a flash, but an eternity passes as we kneel, waiting, in the adjoining room. Strange! It took only a second to incinerate our town, causing a hundred thousand tragedies whose end is not in sight. Can it be that it's easier to destroy a whole city than to eradicate the final consequences of the crime?" The book strongly and explicitly endorses participation in the peace movement, and is more self-conscious, less artfully understated than Flowers.

Morris, Janet. "Hero's Welcome." In Janet Morris, ed. Afterwar. New York: Baen, 1985.
Life is harsh during the nuclear winter which followed a holocaust precipitated by a conflict between India and Pakistan. A roving soldier, one of the few fertile men left, bargains for a meal by agreeing to impregnate a café owner Ôs daughter. He does so, then is shot and killed by the father.

___ and Chris. The Forty Minute War. New York: Baen/Simon & Schuster, 1984.
A plot by the Islamic Jihad to commandeer an airliner and use it crash a nuclear bomb into the White House succeeds because a foolish intelligence officer has discounted the reports of some of his best operatives. EMP knocks out communications, obscuring the source of the attack, so the president assumes it came from the USSR and counterattacks, then commits suicide. A limited nuclear exchange follows. His successor is an ideologue who keeps pressing for an all-out holocaust, even though it has become pointless and dangerous: the nuclear winter theory is referred to in passing. NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations elect to sit out the war. Cuba is accidentally hit by a Russian strike intended for the Kennedy Space Center. There are some fifty-five million casualties in the U.S. The first part of the novel is set in Israel, where interagency rivalry hampers the efforts of intelligence officers to fly a new anti-cancer serum to the U.S. to inject the president, in order to protect him from the long-range effects of radiation exposure. Renegade intelligence operatives manage to use a secret CIA time-travel machine to send a message back before the war to prevent it from ever happening. History is altered as the plane containing terrorists' bomb is attacked and the weapon exploded on the ground.

___. Medusa. New York: Baen, 1986.
A thriller designed to show a Strategic Defense Initiative-style system in action. After the Soviet Union blinds our orbiting sp ace station, a new highly secret air/space craft manages to down a nuclear missile launched at the United States and prevent a holocaust.

Morrison, Philip. "If the Bomb Gets Out of Hand." In Dexter Masters and Katherine Way, eds. One World or None: A Report to the Public on the Full Meaning of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Whittlesey House/McGraw-Hill, 1946.
One of the physicists who worked on the Manhattan Project and inspected the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima provides the sole fictional contribution to this important and influential anthology of essays. His chapter begins with an account of the dropping of the bomb on Japan, then shifts to a scenario depicting a nuclear attack against Manhattan, using details borrowed from Hiroshima. five hundred thousand die. He warns that in the future "hundreds, even thousands" of bombs will be dropped if nuclear war comes.

Morrow, James. This Is the Way the World Ends. New York: Henry Holt, 1986. New York: Ace, 1989.
A brilliant fantasy-satire on the arms race. An average American finds himself on trial for his complicity in the nuclear war which has destroyed most of the world, along with a think-tank strategist, a high-ranking general, an evangelist who preached nuclear Armageddon, and an Assistant Secretary of Defense. The novel deals forthrightly with numerous issues, including civil defense, deterrence theory, nuclear winter, destruction of the ozone layer, genetic damage, radiation disease, and wounds inflicted by the bombs. Cannibalism is portrayed, and a survivalist is shown dying of post-war plague. More than any other novel, it concentrates on the morality of the nuclear arms race, with savage and effective satire. This is not black humor, as in Dr. Strangelove, but a humanistic protest against the madness of atomic warfare. The protagonist is profoundly motivated by love for his four-year-old-daughter: an almost unique example of fatherhood as a focus of a nuclear war narrative. The war turns out to have been triggered by a flight of rare vultures which appeared on American radar screens to be incoming missiles. At one point the protagonist watches Panic in the Year Zero, the film inspired by Ward Moore's "Lot" (1953).

Moudy, Walter F. "The Survivor" (Amazing, May 1965). In Judith Merril, ed. llth Annual Edition: The Year's Best S-F. New York: Delacorte, 1966. New York: Dell, 1967. Also in Leo P. Kelley, ed. Themes in Science Fiction: A Journey into Wonder. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Also in Martin H. Greenberg and Patricia S. Warrick, eds. Political Science Fiction. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974.
In the wake of the Final War of 1998 the U.S. and USSR began a new series of Olympic games in which a team from each side faces each other periodically in an enormous arena for a televised battle to the death. The point of view shifts between that of a slick sportscaster and that of the soldier who is the sole survivor, earning the right to immunity from all laws. His victory brings him wealth and power; but he remains a brooding loner, finally exploding into violence as he rapes his fifteen year-old stepsister while his stepparents sit helplessly by. This is an effective satire on the view of war as a game.

Muller, John E. The Day the World Died. Clovis, California: Vega, n.d .
A flutist in a Moscow orchestra is arrested for belonging to a subversive discussion group and sentenced to test a lead capsule designed to protect astronauts from cosmic rays. Before he can be launched into space from Siberia however, a nuclear war breaks out which destroys most of humanity. He struggles back to Moscow where he joins the few other survivors (including, improbably, his wife and children) in battles against escaped zoo gorillas, mutated six-legged wolves, and mutant bears. In collaboration with an American polar expedition, they destroy with flute music and analogous sounds the alien invaders who caused the war. Typical in many ways of postholocaust survival fiction, this novel is unique in featuring a Russian protagonist, albeit one whose main heresy is a belief in the integrity of the Western nations. Vega Book sold its titles in bulk for sale door to door.

Mumford, Lewis. "Social Effects." Air Affairs, March 1947.
Presents four fictional nuclear war scenarios: the U.S. launches a preemptive war which turns into a catastrophe, a lengthy arms race leads to a holocaust, prolonged nuclear proliferation leads to a police state--again culminating in a devastating atomic war, and society is entirely remolded to prevent a war which does not come, but civilization is destroyed anyway.

Murrow, Edward R. "A-Bomb Mission to Moscow." See under Collier's.

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