Claude McKay: If We Must Die (1919)
In 1919 there was a wave of race riots consisting mainly of white assaults on black
neighborhoods in a dozen American cities. Jamaican-born writer Claude McKay responded by
writing this sonnet, urging his comrades to fight back. It had a powerful impact, then and
For what reason does McKay say even a doomed resistance is worth while?
If we must die, let it not be like hogs
Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die, O let us nobly die,
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!
Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!
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