|Stephen Crane's Siblings
NAME: David Bates, email@example.com
QUESTION: How did Stephen Crane's siblings decease? I am using it in an
English paper for a major grade and that's why I need to know this.
Crane was the 14th and
last child of Jonathan Townley Crane and Mary Helen (Peck) Crane
(Crane Log 1). According to The Crane Log, "Only
8 of the 13 children who preceded Stephen are alive at the time
of his birth" (1). His siblings are as follows (all references
are from The Crane Log or from Thomas Gullason's Stephen
Crane's Literary Family ) :
William Howe Crane (1854-1926) practiced law in Port Jervis,
N. Y. and later retired to California. Gullason: "William was
at Wesleyan University for a year, then New York University,
before graduating from Albany Law School" (2).
Jonathan Townley Crane, Jr. (pronounced "Toonley")
(1858-1908) "died indigent in the local hospital" in
Binghamton, N. Y. (xxxii)
Agnes Elizabeth Crane, a surrogate mother to Crane and a schoolteacher,
d. 10 June 1884 at age 28 of "cerebrospinal meningitis in
the home of her brother Edmund at Rutherford, New Jersey" (32).
Wilbur Fiske Crane (1859-1918) Gullason: "Wilbur attended the
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia College from 1881-1886"
(2). d. in a small town in Georgia.
Edmund Crane (450).
Mary Helen Crane Murray-Hamilton (451). Gullason: "Mary Helen
("Nellie") graduated from Pennington Seminary and Female Collegiat
Institute (where the Reverend Mr. Crane had served for nine years
as its principal)" (1).
George Crane. George, Wilbur, William, Edmund, and Mary Helen
were present at Stephen Crane's funeral service at the Central
Metropolitan Temple on 28 June 1900 (451).
Luther P. Crane d. 26 September 1886 in a fall beneath the wheels
of a moving train (35). Gullason: "Three brothers, Luther, Wilbur,
and Edmund (one alumni directory lists William instead of Edmund),
along wth Agnes, went on to Centenary Collegiate Institute (now
Centenary College)" (1).
of Color in "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky"
QUESTION: I would like some insight regarding Crane's use of color in "The
Bride Comes to Yellow Sky".
|Crane: Married? Children?
Hi I'm a student in H.S. and I'm doing a research project. I'm wondering
if you could answer some of my Questions, thanks.
1.Was he married, if so, to who?
2. Did he have children, if so, what were their names?
|Crane had a common-law marriage with Cora Stewart. Her
husband would not divorce her, so she and Crane could not be legally
married, although Crane always called her "Mrs. Crane." The
two had no children.
You can find this information in various biographies of Crane, The Stephen
Crane Encyclopedia by Stanley Wertheim, and and also in The
Crane Log by Paul Sorrentino and Stanley Wertheim. --D. Campbell
|Naturalism and "The Blue
QUESTION: In what way does Stephen Crane the naturalist connect with
the short story, "The Blue Hotel"?
I am unsure of the role of the gambler. Why does the fearful
character, the Swede, have to be a foreigner? Is there a significance
|This is an interesting question. You might
want to think about how Crane uses stereotypes and beliefs in your
discussion of this story. Here are some
articles on "The Blue Hotel" to help you.
|"The Bride Comes to
NAME: Christy nguyen
QUESTION: analyzing in The bride comes to Yellow sky of Stephen Crane
|"The Open Boat"
NAME: Joanne Carlson
QUESTION: I have to write a 750 word essay explaining how Steven Crane
protrays the nature of the universe as "other" and how he defines human's
relationship to it and each other in "The Open Boat." Any hints
as to any "symbolic passages to the universe" this work contains? I
really don't know where to begin. thanks for any tips you can give
|Many good articles have been written on this
story; you might try doing a search of the bibliographies here
at the SCS site. Look also at how Crane uses the sea, the sky,
the birds, and the sharks in this story. Look also at his use of
the tower. See the suggestions in the answer below.
|How did Crane die?
NAME: Britta Spaulding,loverofJesus_343@yahoo.com
QUESTION: I'm a student in M.S. and we're reading Crane's
THE RED BADGE OF COURAGE. Could you tell me why he was compelled to write
about war, considering that he never saw it before he wrote his famous
novel? And how did he die? I know he was very
young, only 29. Why?
|Crane died of tuberculosis, a common cause of
death before antibiotics and other drugs were discovered to treat
the disease. He had had the disease for a long time. According to The
Crane Log, he suffered a lung hemorrhage on 29 December 1899
but kept writing to pay the bills throughout the spring of 1900. He
had more hemorrhages on March 31st, and by April 14, the Academy,
a journal, noted that Crane was "lying seriously ill at the mediaeval
house in Sussex, Brede Place, where he has been living for the past
two years." At the end of May, 1900, Cora Crane takes Stephen to
Badenweiler, Baden, for treatment, in a last-ditch effort to save
his life. Crane continues to dictate portions of his last novel, The
O'Ruddy, but dies on June 5, 1900.
About Crane's interest in war: see the questions below for
some possible resources.
|Questions on Crane's
Life and Work
NAME: Hanan Benjelloun, galatea1@caramail .com
QUESTION: what in Crane's life made of him a writer ? Was he a prolific
writer? What are the themes that he deals with? What
are the themes that he deals with ? What kind of man was he ?
|A good source for answering these questions would
be the many books and articles on Crane. Your library may have
Patrick Dooley's bibliography on Crane (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1992),
which is annotated; that would be a good place to start. If
your library does not have this book, here are some suggestions:
For example, reading a biography of Crane (such as those by
Christopher Benfey or Linda Davis) would give you a sense of
the events of Crane's early life and possibly the kind of person
he was, as would reading Wertheim and Sorrentino's The Crane
Log and their edition of Crane's letters. George Monteiro's
recent Stephen Crane's Blue Badge of Courage is a good
source on Crane's youth.
These and The Stephen Crane Encyclopedia would also
answer your questions about his themes and the number of works
that he wrote.
You might also try collections of articles on Crane, such
as Lee Clark Mitchell's New Essays on The Red Badge of
Courage or the collections edited by Bloom, Gullason, Bassan,
and others. (See the bibliography
at this site for other suggestions.)
If you want to look at Crane in his own times, see the works
by Keith Gandal, Michael Robertson, and others in the bibliography.
Potter and Scratchy Wilson
What are the characteristics of JACK POTTER AND SCRATCHY WILSON?
|This is the kind of question that can best be
answered by looking in the books suggested above or by sitting down,
drawing a line down the center of a piece of paper, and thinking
for a while about the question. Once you've thought about the story,
start writing Jack Potter's characteristics on one side and Scratchy's
on the other. Here are some questions to get you started:
How do the two characters contrast with one another? How are
What is the relationship between Scratchy and Jack Potter? How
what parts of the story tell you what their relationship is like?
What words does Crane use to give you clues about each person's
character? How are they dressed? What do they say? How do they
interact with other characters? What does Crane's narrative voice
say about them?
How does the setting affect the way in which each character
acts? Why is the fact that they're in the West important?
What difference does Jack's wife make in their relationship?
Devices in "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky"
QUESTION: I have a report on literary devices due in 2 weeks.
Crane's story"The Bride comes to yellow sky" is the story I have
to identify all the literary devices. I have no clue where to
start! If you or anyone know some of the literary devices he
used please tell me! , Sarah
|This is another question where rereading the
story carefully in light of the question and consulting the books
mentioned above will help. Make a copy of the story so that you can
underline and circle important words and phrases.
You would probably want to focus first on Crane's use of images:
how does he describe things?
What kinds of images does he use--sight (visual), sound (auditory),
taste, smell (olfactory), touch, movement?
Crane is famous for his use of color: do you see the use of
color in the story?
Does he use metaphors or similes? Where does he use them,
and for what purpose? Does he use several metaphors or similes
that refer to a single idea? If so, what is the effect on the
Does he use exaggeration (hyperbole) and understatement (litotes)?
Does he repeat words or phrases for effect?
Does he use symbols or symbolic objects to convey meaning?
What are they? What do they mean?
Crane is noted for his use of irony. Are there instances
of irony in this story?
The most important thing is this: how do those devices contribute
to Crane's meaning?
Your textbook should have examples and definitions. Also, here is
a page at George Landow's well-respected Victorian Literature site;
it lists major literary devices and defines them:
|Animal References in Maggie
QUESTION: I'm researching Crane's novel, "Maggie". I was wondering
if there were any references I could use explaining the animal behavior
in his book. Jackie, firstname.lastname@example.org
Potter and his wife
QUESTION: Hello there, I have to write about "Bride comes to
Yellow Sky". Can anybody help me with the question about the
relationship of Potter to his wife?
|You might want to start by looking at Crane's
description of her.
Our culture (and most stories) encourage us to think of brides
as young and beautiful, like the princesses in fairy tales. Does
Mrs. Potter fit this description?
If not, why not?
What does the description tell you about her past, her social
class, and her expectations for the future?
Why might Mrs. Potter be a better choice for a wife on the
frontier than the traditional kind of bride?
Since Jack Potter obviously chose to marry her, what does
this tell you about his expectations for the marriage?
Is Scratchy responding to the bride herself or merely to the
fact that Jack is now married?
|Title for Red
Badge of Courage
NAME: D. Caputo
Was there an original title to The Red Badge of Courage? Does anyone know
what it was?
|In his background reading for "The Red Badge
of Courage," Crane almost undoubtedly encountered some of the published
personal narratives by Union veterans who had seen action in the
ranks such as Wilbur F. Hinman's Corporal Si Klegg and His "'Pard'" (1887
or Warren Lee Goss's popular "Recollections of a Private/A Story
of the Army of the Potomac" (1890). These memoirs traced the development
of a recruit into a veteran. Crane most likely set out to write such
a narrative and first titled his manuscript "Private Fleming/His
Various Battles." Somewhere along the line his focus shifted from
external to internal battles and the relationship of the individual
to society and the cosmic processes as reflected in the mind of a
single soldier. Consequently he changed his title to "The Red Badge
of Courage/An Episode of the American Civil War."
Stanley Wertheim 5/7/02
|Round and Flat Characters
QUESTION: im doing a paper on the bride comes to yellow sky on character
the two main characters of the story how do i define if they are round
or falt and what examples do i use?? im really lost
|Your teacher will be your best source of information
on this. Also, see the questions above for answers about this
story. Round characters, according to E. M. Forster, are dynamic;
they are capable of surprising us in a convincing way. Flat
characters serve other functions but do not grow and change as round
|Crane's Philosophy of Life
QUESTION: What is Crane's philosophy on life??
|A good biography would tell you a lot about this
question (see below). You can also get a good sense of this
by reading his works, perhaps especially his poems. Here are
some questions to ask yourself while reading:
1. Would you say that Crane has an optimistic outlook on human nature?
2. Does he think that man lives in harmony with nature and that nature
3. If you are reading his poems, where does he speak of God? What
does God say and do in those poems in which he appears?
4. Are events in Crane's stories carefully planned so that the good people
always triumph and the bad people are always punished, or is Crane's perspective
more complex than that?
5. Does Crane use irony? Where and for what purposes?
|Report on Crane
I am doing a report on the Red Badge of Courage and I need some Info
1. How many works did Stephen Crane write in his life?
2. What was his most known or popular novel he wrote?
3. What was Henry's last name?
4. What were some of the names of the places he went?(I have to
create a map of Important places)
|You can find the answers to all of
these in the biographies of and books about Stephen Crane. Here
are some titles to help you get started:
Stanley Wertheim and Paul Sorrentino, The Crane Log
Stanley Wertheim, The Stephen Crane Encyclopedia
Christopher Benfey, The Double Life of Stephen Crane
Linda Davis, Badge of Courage: The Life of Stephen Crane
P. S. The answers to numbers 2 and 3 are 2) Red Badge of Courage and
|Color in The Red
Badge of Courage
QUESTION: After reading the Red Badge of Courage for my Junior Literature
class, I decided I wanted to write my term paper on the novel. The
topic I chose was the symbolism of the color red in the Red Badge of
Courage, but I have yet to find any critical essays mentioning Crane's
use of color. Can you help? Sources and websites would help, along
with any advice.
|Sunshine in The Red Badge of Courage
QUESTION: I'm writing a paper on the meaning of the use of sunshine in
Crane's "The Red Badge of Courage". I could really use some help on this subject.-
|QUESTION: I have to do a research paper on the psychological and
social aspects of Crane and his short story "The Sergeant's Private
Madhouse." Is there a site that can help me?
works inspired by Stephen Crane
QUESTION: What sort of contemporary works were inspired by Stephen Crane? I
have tried, without avail, to locate a single site which states that Crane
or any of his works were an inspiring factor in anything. I would
quite seriously appreciate any help or recommendations. Thank you,
Will Dobbins, email@example.com
What message is Stephen Crane attempting to portray in "The Wayfarer"?
In what ways, if any, does this theme relate to his life?
| The theme of Crane's "The wayfarer" is
reflected in a later poem that was almost undoubtedly influenced
by it, Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken." The narrator in Frost's
poem comes to a crossroads where two roads diverge in a Dantean "yellow
wood," reflecting the ambivalences and ambiguities of life. The two
roads are fair, but the narrator understands that he cannot travel
both. He chooses "the one less traveled by,/And that has made all
the difference." In contrast, Crane's wayfarer perceives that "the
pathway to truth" is a relatively untraveled road choked with weeds
and briars and chooses a more comfortable path. Crane's own early
years were spent in a stable, conventional small-town environment
but he chose to, live a hectic and often dangerous life as an investigative
reporter and war correspondent. His career as a writer was devoted
to the unrelenting pursuit of his vision of truth, regardless of
consequences. As he wrote to a number of editors, "I understand that
a man is born into the world with his own pair of eyes and he is
not at all responsible for his quality of personal honesty. To keep
close to my honesty is my supreme ambition." In "The wayfarer" Crane
satirizes people who choose the road more traveled by and lead comfortable
lives, experiencing and risking little.
Stanley Wertheim 8/20/02
Crane and Modern Literature
QUESTION: How did the works of Stephen Crane affect modern english literature??
Please reply asap.Neil Hodges, firstname.lastname@example.org
|This question might be best answered by a look
at a general essay or book on Crane, such as The Stephen Crane
Encyclopedia, the entries on Crane in the Dictionary of Literary
Biography series, or other such sources.
About replying ASAP: The questions in this column are answered when
volunteers undertake to send in replies, so there are never any guarantees
about when a given question might be answered.
|Bibliography on "The Blue Hotel"
QUESTION: I'm doing a research paper on the Blue Hotel and I'm
having trouble finding critisims on the Blue Hotel?
Kostas Tsilianos email@example.com, 7/18/02
|You can check the bibliographies on
Crane for some ideas; also, there is an online
|Stephen Crane, Slums of New York and Sojourn
QUESTION: I'm searching for more detailed information about
Stephen Crane's works related to the slums of New York and information
about his sojourn in England. Mara Gabrielli firstname.lastname@example.org
|Crane, God, and Deism
QUESTION: i'm writing a paper on deism and Crane's work and
life. I was looking for information supporting what religious
beliefs Crane may have held. His work, especially his poetry,
seemed to showed a deistic view of the world and God. Deism is
the belief in God being responsible for the creation of the universe,
but other than that he doesnt really do anything. Do you know
of any information i could use for my paper or am i completely
off the mark with this thesis?Abigail D. Gastaldi, email@example.com
|Crane did not share the anthropomorphic,
omnipotent conception of God held by his Methodist forbears, and
some of his poems reflect the deistic conception that whatever force
created the universe somehow lost or relinquished control of a creation
that subsequently degenerated into purposelessness and chaos. This
is reflected in the following poem from The Black Riders:
God fashioned the ship of the world carefully
With the infinite skill of an All-Master
Made He the hull and the sails,
Held He the rudder
Ready for adjustment.
Erect stood He, scanning His work proudly.
Then-at fateful time-a wrong called,
And God turned, heeding.
Lo, the ship, at this opportunity,
Making cunning noiseless travel down the ways.
So that, forever rudderless, it went upon the seas
Going ridiculous voyages,
Making quaint progress,
Turning as with serious purpose
Before stupid winds.
And there were many in the sky
Who laughed at this thing.
Metaphor in "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky"
QUESTION: I'm doing an assignment on "The bride comes to yellow sky", but
i can't seem to find the controlling metaphor... please help! Susan
|Some of the questions and answers on this page may help you to
find the answer to this question.
|Symbolism in The Red Badge of Courage
I am writing a term paper for my Honors English class of the
symbolism in "The Red Badge of Courage." I've been
having a hard time finding critical essays and/or articles about
this topic. Can you help? Sites would be great. Thanks! firstname.lastname@example.org