__Equipment__: NaI scintillation detector, amplifier, pulse-height
analyzer; gamma sources, sets of absorber plates.

__Readings:__ Interactions of photons with matter, concept of crosssections,
sect. 5.2.1 and 5.2.5; Absorption measurements, sect. 5.4.3.

__Key concepts__: Absorption and scattering crosssections for photons;
absorption lengths, mass absorption coefficients.

Absorbers of Al, Cu, Cd and Pb are available in plates that can be stacked
to produce a range of thicknesses. Various gamma sources are
available, including ^{137}Cs (662 keV), ^{60}Co (1.17
and 1.33 MeV) ,
^{57}Co (122 keV), ^{22}Na (511 keV, 1.27
MeV) , and ^{241}Am (59.7 keV) may be available. Also,
some sources emit x-rays of lower energy, e.g. *K* x-rays of Ba followind
decay of ^{137}Cs. For various paired choices of source and
absorber, make measurements of transmitted counts as a function of absorber
thickness. Choose a range of absorber thicknesses that result in
a large change in the number of transmitted counts and make a series of
measurements to help experimentally to determine how the number of transmitted
counts decreases with absorber thickness . Measure absorber thicknesses
with a micrometer or vernier caliper.

An important issue is to determine the "background" counting rate that is irrelevant to your measurements. Background radiation may come from cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity, but also, e.g., from scattering of radiation from your source off of nearby objects into the detector. You need to use judgement to determine best the background counting rate. After subtraction of background counting rates, plot count rates on semi-log paper versus absorber thickness. Determine absorption lengths and coefficients from slopes using the theory of gamma ray absorption (exponential absorption law).

Compare your measured coefficients with those obtained from the attached graph of mass absorption coefficients or from the net (e.g. see http://www.csrri.iit.edu/periodic-table.html or other links on the course home page). Ascertain whether or not your coefficients are consistent with those reported elsewhere. If they are not consistent, try to figure out why and to explain how better values might be obtained.

**4.2 Mass absorption coefficient versus gamma energy**

Using one absorber determine absorption coefficients for a wide range of gamma energies. Al, Cu or Cd is recommended over Pb. Plot coefficients versus energy and try to establish a qualitative or quantitative dependence,

**4.3 Mass absorption coefficients vs. absorber atomic number Z**

Using one gamma source (preferably ^{57}Co or ^{241}Am)
determine absorption coefficients for absorbers having a wide range of
atomic numbers Z. Plot mass absorption coefficients versus Z and
try to establish a qualitative or quantitative dependence.

a. How can you determine the "true" background counting rate? By interposing a very thick absorber? By moving the source far away? Are there contributions to "background" from the source itself? If so, could they be reduced through a better experimental design?

b. The total crosssection for removal of photons from the beam, or 'extinction' crosssection, is the sum of crosssections for photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering and pair production. How might you try to distinguish between these contributions experimentally?

c. Consider the simple pulse-height spectrum of 137Cs, which emits a
single gamma ray with an energy of 662 keV. To determine the counting
rate, you have the choice of integrating counts over the entire spectrum
or only over the photopeak. What are the tradeoffs in each choice?

__Diagram of Apparatus__

Energy units BeV= Billion of electron-volts= GeV. Note that lower curves are extensions of the upper curves to higher energies and that there are different energy scales at top and bottom of the graph..

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