Dr. Michael Delahoyde
Washington State University


The play is usually treated as being beneath the glorious Shakespeare because of its reliance on farcical absurdity for the humor and because, on the assumption that it's among the first comedies Shakespeare wrote, it lacks the organic originality of other of his plays -- even being considered less skillful and more artificial than its Latin source: Plautus' Manaechmi from about 220 BCE, with added elements from Plautus' Amphitruo such as the dinner and the second set of twins (Garber 163). But the thing is a delight. The verse often rhymes, making the play zip along (it's the shortest of the plays anyway), and a good production can make the experience exhilarating. For further compactness, like only The Tempest in the Shakespeare canon it obeys the Aristotelian unities (Asimov 179). The Rodgers and Hart musical, The Boys from Syracuse, comes from this play.

We know that a play called The Historie of Error was shown at Hampton Court on New Year's Day 1576-77, which sounds like an early version of the one we've got (Clark 15). This dating doesn't work for the Stratfordians, of course, who insist on a 1594 showing as pivotal, but it works fine for the Oxfordian thesis. The play certainly seems like a court entertainment, perhaps with later touches added (Clark 15; Ogburn and Ogburn 111). The elder Ogburns suggest that an even earlier version originated in the early 1570s, from Oxford's days at Gray's Inn (Ogburn and Ogburn 110-111).



Egeon, a merchant from Syracuse in Sicily, has been captured in the enemy city of Ephesus and condemned to death. Solinus, the Duke of Ephesus -- the title is inappropriate and anachronistic (Asimov 169) -- serves as an embodiment of the laws. Like several Dukes in the canon, he is the law (Garber 160).

if any born at Ephesus be seen
At any Syracusian marts and fairs;
Again, if any Syracusian born
Come to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
His goods confiscate to the Duke's dispose,
Unless a thousand marks be levied
To quit the penalty and to ransom him.
Of course, there's no historical basis for any of this (Asimov 170), but it's interesting that Shakespeare changed the location to Ephesus, a city not only linked with witchcraft through the Pauline letters in the New Testament, but also a city dedicated to Artemis, or Diana, goddess of virginity (Garber 163), an inevitable Elizabeth connection.

The Duke requests that Egeon tell his story. Egeon says that his family consisted of himself, his wife Aemilia, and their twin sons, "the one so like the other / As could not be distinguish'd but by names" (I.i.51-52). He also brought into their home twin servant boys (a feature Shakespeare has added to his main Plautus source). They were all aboard ship when they encountered a tempest, and after some lashings to masts, the family was broken apart in the shipwreck and rescue. Aemilia sailed off with one of the twin sons and one of the twin servants. The other two remained with Egeon. When Egeon's son turned 18, Egeon granted him permission to seek the missing brother and mother. This son was "Reft of his brother, but retain'd his name" (I.i.128), which seems to imply that he had taken on the name of his lost brother, a strained explanation as to why we'll have two brothers named Antipholus -- a name that means "opposed in balance" (Asimov 174). Why there are twin servants named Dromio -- from the Greek word for "racecourse" (Asimov 173) -- is anybody's guess.

Egeon then set out after his son. After five years he came to Ephesus and now has been captured. The Duke is moved but the law is the law, and to recall the sentence would work "But to our honor's great disparagement" (I.i.148). Still, if Egeon can raise a thousand marks in a day for ransom, he can live: "Beg thou, or borrow, to make up the sum, / And live: if no, then thou art doom'd to die" (I.i.153-154).


Antipholus of Syracuse, the one Egeon was looking for, is in Ephesus, thinking he shall never find his brother and mother. He gives his servant Dromio (played by Roger Daltrey of The Who in the BBC production) 1000 marks to convey to the Centaur, the inn at which they are staying. Antipholus also speaks with a merchant until the latter says, "My present business calls me from you now" (I.ii.29) -- a social extrication without the seeming craftiness of Petruchio's use of it. Antipholus speaks of killing time sightseeing, but refers to it specifically in this way: "I will go lose myself" (I.ii.30).

I to the world am like a drop of water,
That in the ocean seeks another drop,
Who, falling there to find his fellow forth
Unseen, inquisitive, confounds himself.
So I, to find a mother and a brother,
In quest of the unhappy, ah, lose myself.

A moment later, the other "lost" Dromio, Dromio of Ephesus, mistakes Antipholus of Syracuse for his master, Antipholus of Ephesus, and tells him that his wife awaits him for dinner at his home, the Phoenix. Dromio delivers this bit:

She is so hot [angry], because the meat is cold:
The meat is cold, because you come not home:
You come not home, because you have no stomach:
You have no stomach... [etc.]

Looney noted that this sequence resembles a similar pattern of concatenation in the de Vere verse, "The Grief of Mind":

What plague is greater than the grief of mind?
The grief of mind that eats in every vein;
In every vein that leaves such clots behind;
Such clots behind as breed such bitter pain;
So bitter pain that none shall ever find,
What plague is greater than the grief of mind.
(in Clark 20-21; cf. Ogburn and Ogburn 52; Ogburn 583)
Antipholus whacks this Dromio on the head for being a joker. Despite Antipholus' knowledge that twins exist somewhere and despite his mission to find them, "The events can only follow if no character in the play ever sees the plainest point, and the audience must co-operate and accept the obtuseness for the sake of its own pleasure" (Asimov 173). Antipholus suspects Dromio has lost the money he gave him:
They say this town is full of cozenage:
As nimble jugglers that deceive the eye,
Dark-working sorcerers that change the mind,
Soul-killing witches that deform the body,
Disguised cheaters, prating mountebanks,
And many such like liberties of sin....
This sounds like the kind of warning Oxford would have gotten from people such as Burghley regarding his travel, especially to Italy. (Might it also apply to theater?) If the first version of this play did come from about 1576, Anne Barton's observation in the introduction to the Riverside edition of this play makes Oxfordian sense:
Unlike Plautus, Shakespeare seems to have been less interested in the problems of the native twin angered by the perversity of a familiar world than he was in the more extreme situation of the traveler, especially vulnerable because far from home, who finds himself losing his own sense of self in an alien city of reputed sorcery and spells. (Barton 113, qtd. in Farina 43)

Act II

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