It is worthwhile to realize that you will not be able to successfully predict which words are count and which are non-count based on what they mean. First, nouns with very similar meanings seem to fall into different categories, not just information and fact, but rice and pea, furniture and chair, music and song. Second, in the truly annoying way that characterizes human language, many nouns fall into both categories, nouns like melody, beauty, pizza, paper and truth all belong to both categories (often with slightly different meanings). So one can talk about a melody (which refers to a specific set of notes) or melody (which refers to part of music characterized by sets of notes, as opposed to rhythm, for example) or a truth (meaning a true statement or an eternal verity) or truth (meaning the quality of being true). So we can hold these truths to be self-evident or we can believe in the ultimate importance of truth.
Ultimately what does all this mean?
(1) To use a noun accurately, you need to know what category it belongs to in the sense in which you want to use it. The category will typically determine whether you can use the noun in the plural or with a/an. These apparently abstract categories have important effects on actual use.
(2) When you come across a new word in reading or in speech, you want to attend to its form and what precedes it. Under some conditions, you will get the word in a context which tells you whether it is count or noncount in the use in which you encounter it and you can consciously attach that notion to the word.
(3) There will be many times when you come across a word in contexts in which you cannot tell whether the noun is count or non-count. You will not typically be able to guess from the meaning of the word. You need an authoritative source: look up the word in a good dictionary (for example, Longman's) or ask a native speaker of English who is familiar with the word. (Notice that if you ask a native speaker, you can't just say "Is information a count noun or a non-count noun?" You have to ask about the grammaticality of a test phrase, for example "Is informations okay in I need more informations?")
(4) Remember that some words belong to both categories, so make sure you have the right meaning associated with the noun in the particular category in which you want to use it.