Proper referencing is vital to the scholarly pursuit. It enables readers to engage your reasoning by double-checking the sources you employ, as much as you, the author, demonstrate that your thinking engages the knowledge of others.

Choosing sources conscientiously is the key to any significant argument. Use only appropriate academic, scholarly sources - from the Internet and elsewhere. The Terrell library's database of scholarly journals is one such excellent source for scholarly opinion to include in papers. Serious newspaper articles or reviews from e.g. The new York Times or The Guardian are also valid sources, e.g. when discussing art.

In regards to choosing a style of referencing there are different schools of thought. MLA (Modern Language Association), APA (American Psychological Association), and the CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE are three major styles. These styles require you to follow each their particular set of rules when referencing different kinds of text. Even to the point of meticulously outlining margins and spaces.

is an excellent resource for APA and MLA style.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online


I am far from fundamentalist on the matter of style of referencing. Choose whichever format you are most comfortable with!



Do you know zotero? This is a wonderful tool for creating and maintaining references enabling you with a click of the mouse to put references in the style you like. Check it out!


Basic MLA style of single books:

Haywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Vikings. London: Penguin, 1995.

Magnusson, Magnus, and Herman Palsson, ed. and trans. Njal's Saga. London: Penguin, 1960.

Freeland, Cynthia. But Is It Art? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.


Basic APA style:

Haywood, J. (1995). Historical Atlas of the Vikings. London: Penguin.

Magnusson, M., & Palsson, H. (Eds.) (1960). Njal's Saga. London: Penguin.

Freeland, C. (2001). But Is It Art? Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Chicago Manuel of Style:

Putnam, Hilary. 2004. Ethics Without Ontology. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Hamlin, William. 2000. On Continuities between Skepticism and Early Ethnigraphy; Or, Montaigne’s Providential Diversity. Sixteenth Century Journal 31, no. 2:361-379.

Screech, M.A., trans. 2004. Michel de Montaigne The Essays: A Selection. Penguin Books.