The Western Journal of Black Studies

Volume 26, Issue 1



The Economic Philosophy of Marcus Garvey
Shawn Carter

Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a pivotal figure in the economic development of African Americans. After his arrival in the United States in 1916, he utilized his phenomenal oratorical skills to gain financial support to foster capitalistic risk investments. He sought to achieve economic self-sufficiency for African Americans by creating a strong economic base and financial independence. Although most of his entrepreneurial efforts failed, his ill-fated business investments became the structural foundaton for future achievements in African American economic development.
pp. 1–5


Adventures in Exoticism: The "Black Life" Novels of White Writers
Robert Fikes, Jr.

Traced back to pre-Civil War era, the "Black life" novel wherein white writers purported to give to the titllated and curious white reading public insights into a world where most or all of the main characters were Black, enjoyed periods of resurgence, particularly in the 1920s and 1990s. This study surveys and comments on this popular ficiton sub-genre that have featured Blacks as principal protagonists and crucial main characters, all created by white authors who were generally sensitive and well-meaning but also by some who were exploitive, patronizing, and condescending. Often times these authors had had close personal contact with Blacks while others had only superficial knowledge of them, raising the issues of authenticity and propriety.
pp. 6–15


African Blood Brotherhood, Independent Marxist
During the Harlem Renaissance
Ronald A. Kuykendall

The African Blood Brotherhood was an Afro-Marxist organization active during the Harlem Renaissance. Organized by Cyril V. Briggs, the ABB was a revolutionary secret organization whose purpose and program was the liberation of African people and the redemption of the African race. The program of the ABB espoused racial pride, Black Nationalism, Pan-Africanism, and an economic analysis of the African American struggle which it linked to colonialsm and imperialsim. Although by 1925the ABB leadership had established close ties with the Communist Party and was no longer an inde[edent organization, the ABB stands out among other organizations during that time because of its synthesis of Black Nationalism with Marxism-communism. The ABB also stands as a precursor of later revolultionary Black Nationalist groups.


The NAACP and Global Human Rights
Jake C. Miller

Although the major focus of the NAACP has been the improvement of conditions in the United States for African Americans, it has demonstrated a broader interest in the freedom of the oppressed throughout the world. While most of its international efforts have been in behalf of peoples of Africa and its diaspora, it has not ignored the plight of others. Among those with whom it has identified have been the Indians, Indonesians, Palestinians, Catholics of Northern Ireland, and the Jewish people. This paper is an analysis of the NAACP's effort to alter both American immigration procedures and foreign policy in order to enhance human rights, internationally.
pp. 22–31


The Making of the Second Diaspora:
On the Recent African Immigrant Community in the United States of America
Baffour K. Takyi

Until quite recently, few African immigrants came to the United States. For a number of reasons, including socioeconomic and political instability on the African continent, this pattern has changed and the African community in the United States has increased substantially in recent years. Unfortunately, very few studies examine the experiences of Africans in the United States. Using micro-sample data from the 1990 Census, this paper has documented the experiences of recent African immigrants. Findings from the analyses indicate that imigration from Africa to the United States is a recent phenomenon. Also, eight main countries provide the bulk of African immigrants. Considering the level of education as well as the type of work these immigrants do, it is true to suggest that the "quality" of the African immigrant pool is quite high. Our findings also indicate that Africans are not a monolithic group as they differ along racial/ethinic lines. The author concludes by arguing for a need for African countries to have policies that can draw on the skills of those in the diaspora.
pp. 32–43


'Good Speech':
An Interpretive Essay Investigating an African Philosophy of Communications
Venita Kelley

As the beginning piece/essay in an investigative series the author conducts an interpretive analysis of Ptah Hotep's public treatise addressing the parameters of human interaction which lead to a well functioning society. "Good Speech," Hotepo's phrase for conducting public and private interactions, is posed as a philosophy of communication originating in Africa which then influences communication norms and expectiations for African Americans and African descendants in the Diaspora. The author makes a case that the term Good Speech is rhetorical philosophy influencing African Amerian rhetors as they critque United States society. The author posits that Good Speech may be the methodological tool African-centereed communicationists are looking for to assess Arrican Amerian rhetoric.
pp. 44–54


Book Reviews

The Problem of Race in teh 21st Century
Author: Thomas Holt
Reviewed By: L. Keita

Slaves, Sailors, Citizens: African Americans in the Union Navy
Author: Steven J. Ramold
Reviewed By: John Herxchel Barnhill






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