The Western Journal of Black Studies

Volume 27, Issue 2


African Americans and Mortgage Lending Discrimination
Sandra Phillips

it has been a little more than ten years since data became available to perform in depth review and analysis of mortgage lending discrimination. In 1990, The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (Fed) conducted research on mortgage lending patterns for whites and non-whites in the Boston Metropolitan area. Since then, there have been numerous studies undertaken which speak to the question of whether racial discrimination exist in mortgage lending. However, very few have looked at what seems to work to eradicate or reduce it. The purpose of this study then, is to examine what has happened since the Fed study and examine contributory factors leading to the change. The data show that there was improvement in mortgage lending for African Americans within each income category and region from 1990 to 1995. What seemed to be responsible for the overall positive outcome is a stricter enforcement of laws currently on the books.
pp. 65-79


The Understanding of Race and the Construction of African American Identity
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson, Maysa Akbar

This study explores the understanding of race and racial group categorization as potential factors associated with the construction of African American identity. Three hundred and nineteen African American adults were interviewed to determine the impact of group definition and term preference on racial identity salience and attitudes. Measures administered included a demographic questionnaire, a 29-item racial identification questionnaire, and a 5-item measure of racial identity salience. Additionally, three open-ended questions were posed that probed participant strategy for racial group categorization and preferred racial designation
term. The basis for racial group categorization was associated with term preference and cultural racial identity, but not racial identity salience or other racial identity attitudes, and there was an association between term preference and racial identity
salience. The implications of these findings are explored. This research was supported by a grant from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
pp. 80-88


Apartheid and Education in South Africa:
Select Historical Analyses 

Ali A. Abdi

This essay presents an historical snapshot of the problems of education and development that have been deliberately designed and implemented by European settler-colonialism and apartheid in South Africa. The observational as well as the analytical premium one attaches to the discussions in this essay would be reflected in ascertaining the need to understand how past events are influencing current realities and possibilities in educational achievement and possible social development in the
lives of especially, South Africa kpreviously disenfranchised African majority. To explain these, a number of post-settler events are looked at briefly, and the resulting disabling policies and programs in the lives of the indigenous population are
examined. At the end, the continuing negative impact that colonial and apartheid educational programs are still having on the lives of the country's black population should be clear.
pp. 89-97


Affirmative Action and Academic Employment: Differentiation of Campus Perceptions in the University of Missouri System
Shawn Woodhouse

This study constructed a picture of the status of affirmative action by examining faculty data employment trends and analyzing faculty perceptions of the impact of affirmative action in thefour-campus system of the University of Missouri. Of a total of 3,907 public faculty, a stratified random sample of 616 tenured and tenure-track faculty were surveyed in the University of Missouri system. Collectively, the faculty population was positive about affirmative action on their campuses and very knowledgeable of affirmative action policies, but perceived that there is a scarcity of women and minority faculty in their fields. In addition, they believed that their institutions were committed to the recruitment of under-represented groups.
pp. 98-107


The Exoduster Movement
Mike Meacham

In the years after the civil war the newly freed southern blacks developed many methods to obtain the freedom and equality that they had expected from emancipation. One such effort was the Exoduster movement. This article analyzes the movement using three indices: (I) material needs and interests, (2) ideology, and (3) the manipulation of symbolic meaning about the movement by its leaders to promote it. A history of the movement is included, focusing specifically on the efforts of one of its primary leaders, "Pap" Singleton.
pp. 108-117


African-American Students Struggle in the High-Stakes Test Storm
Randy Lattimore

The poor performance and mathematical miseducation of urban African-American students in preparation for high-stakes tests just do not add up. Some of the reasons for these deficiencies not adding up include: teachers with inadequate preparation in mathematics and science, unimaginative approaches to teaching, teacher misassigmnent, and poorly constructed textbooks. Unfortunately, these types of classroom conditions, and especially these kinds of teachers, are often found in large numbers in urban schools. New strategies for preparing students for the high-stakes test and proper classroom instruction must be at the forefront of any mathematics intervention program for students. This paper has as its focus the mathematics preparation experiences of Wanda, Art, and Boo, three African-American students involved in a high-stakes test situation.
pp. 118-126


The Origins of a New Negro Lawyer 1898–1923
David A. Canton

This article examines the political, social, and economic forces that shaped Raymond Pace Alexander. The majority of civil rights scholarship that focuses on the North investigates Martin Luther King, Jr., Chicago Campaign, Black Power and the
urban rebellions. Scholars have overlooked the contributions that local black attorneys made to the civil rights struggle in northern cities from the New Negro to the Black Power Era. Raymond Pace Alexander was a prominent black attorney who
led the civil rights struggle in Philadelphia. Alexander spent his formative years in three northern cities; Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, where he encountered northern racism. As a result, Alexander used the courts to fight for civil rights. This
paper explores how racism, race consciousness, and protest molded Alexander a New Negro lawyer.
pp. 127-138


Book Reviews

Blacks in Colonial Veracruz: Race, Ethnicity, and Regional Development
Author: Patrick J. Carroll
Reviewed By: Ramon Julian Vasconcellos

The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance Between Hebrews and African in 701 BC
Author: Henry T. Aubin
Reviewed By: Abraham Rezpkowicz







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