|Influence of Flour Chlorination and Ingredient Formulation on the Quality Attributes of Pancakes Cereal Chemistry 83:684-691
|Finnie,S.M., Bettge,A.D., and Morris,C.F.
|Soft wheat flour is commonly chlorinated in North America for the
production of cakes and pancakes. The oxidative properties of chlorine
gas cause chemical modifications to flour components that enhance processing
and end-use functionality of the intended food products. The
objectives of this study were 1) to compare how untreated and chlorinetreated
commercial soft wheat flour perform in a standard pancake formulation
and 2) to compare how the individual ingredients in a standard
pancake formulation influence quality attributes of pancakes made with
untreated as well as chlorine-treated commercial soft wheat flour. Two
portions of the same soft wheat flour, one chlorinated and the other unchlorinated,
were used to study the effects of flour chlorination on batter
viscosity, geometry, and texture quality attributes of pancakes. Commercial
pancake formula ingredients were evaluated at different concentrations
for their individual influence on quality attributes of pancakes.
Differences in means (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the influence of the
sources of pancake quality variation. The results indicate that flour chlorination
had a significant influence on pancake batter viscosity, geometry,
and texture, with chlorinated flour producing a more viscous batter, a
larger and thicker pancake that was softer, more cohesive and resilient.
The evaluation of a wide range of formula ingredient concentrations indicated
that none could wholly substitute for chlorination. Individual ingredients
did dramatically influence pancake batter viscosity, geometry, and
texture, especially soy flour, dextrose, and leavening agents. However,
sucrose and shortening had nonsignificant influences on the end-use
quality of both chlorinated and unchlorinated pancakes.
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