Publications from the Laboratory of K. V. Kardong

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1.  1972.  Kardong, K. V. 1972.Morphology of the respiratory system and its musculature in different snake genera (Part I), Crotalus and Elaphe.  Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 117:285-302.

 2.  1972. Kardong, K. V. 1972.Morphology of the respiratory system and its musculature in different snake genera (Part II) Charina.  Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 117:364-376. PDF

 3.  1973. Kardong, K. V. 1973.Lateral jaw and throat musculature of the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus.  Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 119:316-335. PDF

 4.  1974. Kardong, K. V. 1974. Prey capture in the cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus).  J. Herpetology 9(2):169-175.

 5.  1975. Kardong, K. V. 1975. Kinesis of the jaw apparatus during the strike in the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus.  Forma et functio 7:327-354.

 6.  1976.  Swinehart, P. A., D. L. Bentley, and K. V. Kardong.  1976.  Scanning electron microscope study of the effects of pressure on the luminal surface of the rabbit aorta.  Amer. J. Anat. (zipgram) 145(1):137-142.

 7.  1977.  Kardong, K. V. 1977.How a rattlesnake strikes.  Pac. Search. 11(10):53.

 8.  1977.  Kinesis of the jaw apparatus during swallowing in the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus.  Copeia 2:338-354.

 9.  1979.  Wright, D. B., D. L. Bentley, and K. V. Kardong.  Tooth characteristics of the dentition in the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans (Serpentes, colubridae).  Herpetologica 35:223-228. PDF

10.  1979. Kardong, K. V. 1979. "Protovipers" and snake fang evolution.  Evolution 33:433-443. PDF

11.  1980. Kardong, K. V. 1980.Evolutionary patterns in advanced snakes.  Amer. Zool. 20:269-282. PDF

12.  1980. Kardong, K. V. 1980. Gopher snakes and rattlesnakes:  Presumptive Batesian mimicry.  Northwest Sci. 54:1-7.

13.  1980.  Kardong, K. V. 1980.Jaw musculature of the West Indian Snake Alsophis cantherigens brooksi.  Brevoria 462:1-26.

14.  1981.  Luchtel, D. L., and K. V. Kardong. 1981. Ultrastructure of the lung of the rattlesnake.  Crotalus viridis oreganus.  J. Morph. 169:29-47.

16.  1981.  Vest, D. K.  1981. Envenomation following the bite of a wandering garter snake (Thamnophis elegans vagrans).  Clin. Tox. 18(5):573-579.

17.  1981.  Vest, D. K.  1981. The toxic Duvernoy's secretion of the wandering garter snake (Thamnophis elegans vagrans).  Clin. Tox. 18:573-579.

18.  1982.  Kardong, K. V. 1982.Comparative study of changes in prey capture behavior of the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and Egyptian cobra (Naja haje).  Copeia 1982:337-343.

19.  1982.  Kardong, K. V. 1982.The evolution of the venom apparatus in snakes from colubrids to viperids and elapids.  Mem. Inst. Butantan 46:105-118. PDF

20.  1983.  Kardong, K. V., W. J. Foreyt, C. W. Leathers, and S. Whaley. 1983. Surgical removal of plerocercoids from snakes and subsequent diagnosis of experimentally induced adult tapeworm in coyotes.  Vet. Med./Small Anim. Clin. Oct:1593-1596.

21.  1983.  Jansen, D. W., and R. Foehring.  1983. A possible function of the secretion of Duvernoy's gland of the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.  J. Morph. 175:271-277.

22.  1984.  Conlogue, G., and W. J. Foreyt.  1984. Experimental infections of Eimeria mccordocki (Protozoa, Eimeriidae) in white-tailed deer.  J. Wildlife Dis. 20:31-33

23.  1984.  Lowell, R.  1984. Desiccation of intertidal limpets: Effects of shell size, fit to substratum and shape. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 77:197-207.

24.  1984.  Conlogue, G. J., W. J. Foreyt and R. B. Wescott.  1984. Bovine coccidiosis:  protective effects of low level infection and coccidiostat treatments in calves.  American Journal of Veterinary Research 45:863-866.

25.  1984.  Conlogue, G. J., E. V. Warmoth and J. Wetmore.  1984. Microradiography using a non-commercially constructed grenz ray unit.  Radiologic Technology 55:813-816.

26.  1985.  Conlogue, G. J., J. A. Ogden, and W. J. Foreyt.  1985. Parasites of the Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli True).  J. Wildlife Dis. 21(2):160-166.

27.  1985.  Mackessy, S. P.  1985. Fractionation of red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber ruber) venom:  Protease, phosphodiesterase and L-amino acid oxidase activities.  Toxicon 23:337-340.

28.  1986.  Kardong, K. V.  1986. The predatory strike of the rattlesnake: when things go amiss.  Copeia 1986:816-820.

29.  1986.  Kardong, K. V.  1986. Observations on live Azemiops feae, Fea's viper.  Herp. Rev. 17(4):81-82.


30.  1986.  Kardong, K. V. and D. L. Luchtel.  1986. Ultrastructure of the Duvernoy's gland from the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans (Serpentes, Colubridae).  J. Morph. 188:1-13.

31.  1986.  Kardong, K. V.  1986.Kinematics of swallowing in the Yellow Rat Snake, Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata:  A reappraisal.  Japanese J. Herp. 1:96-109.

32.  1986.  Kardong, K. V.  1986. Predatory strike behavior of the rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus.  J. Comparative Psychology 3:304-314. PDF

33.  1986.  Kardong, K. V., P. Dullemeijer, and J. A. M. Fransen.  1986. Feeding mechanisms in rattlesnakes.  Amph. - Rept. 7:271-302. PDF

34.  1986.  Vest, D. K.  1986. Observations on the venom of Fea's viper (Azemiops feae) Boulenger.  Toxicon 24:510-513. PDF

35.  1986.  Conlogue, G. J. and J. A. Ogden.  1986. Grenz ray technique for painting analysis.  Radiologic Technology 57:338-341.

36.  1987.  Kardong, K. V.  1987. Biogeography of New World pit vipers.  Expl. Nat. (In Chinese)

37.  1987.  Johnson, E. K., K. V. Kardong, and C. L. Ownby.  1987. Observations on white and yellow venoms from an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus).  Toxicon 25:1169-1180.

38.  1987.  Johnson, E. K., K. V. Kardong, and S. P. Mackessy.  1987. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.  Toxicon 25:1347-1349.

39.  1987.  Johnson, E. K.  1987. Seasonal stability in the venoms from the northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus).  Northwest Sci. 61:110-113.

40.  1988.  Barr, A. D., S. A. Wieburg, and K. V. Kardong.  1988. The predatory strike behavior of the mamushi, Agkistrodon blomhoffii blomhoffii, and the Malay pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma.  Jpn. J. Herpet. 12:135-138.

41.  1988.  Mackessy, S. P.  1988. Venom ontogeny in the Pacific rattlesnake Crotalus viridis helleri and Crotalus viridis oreganus.  Copeia 1988(1):92-101.

42.  1988.  Young, B. A.  1988. The subclavian loop in Varanid locomotion.  Copeia 1988(4):1029-1034.

43.  1988.  Vest, D. K.  1988. Some effects and properties of Duvernoy's gland secretion from Hypsiglena torquata texana (Texas night snake).  Toxicon 26:417-419.

44.  1990.  Kardong, K. V.  1990. General skull, bone, and muscle variation in Agkistrodon and related genera.  In, H. K. Gloyd and R. Conant, eds.  Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex.  Pp. 573-581. PDF

45.  1991.  Mackessey, S. P.  1991. Morphology and ultrastructure of the venom glands of the northern Pacific rattlesnake Crotalus viridis oreganus.  J. Morph. 208:109-128.

46.  1991.  Robinson, B. G., and K. V. Kardong.  1991. Relocation of struck prey by venomoid (venom-less) rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis oreganus.  Bull. Maryland Herpet. Soc. 27(1):23-30.  PDF

47.  1991.  Kardong, K. V., and S. P. Mackessey.  1991. The strike behavior of a congenitally blind rattlesnake.  J. Herpet. 25(2):208-211. PDF

48.  1991.  Kardong, K. V., and P. Smith.  1991. The role of sensory receptors in the predatory behavior of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis (Squamata: Colubridae).  J. Herpet. 25(2):229-231. PDF

49.  1991.  Kuhn, B. K., M. J. Rochelle, and K. V. Kardong.  1991. Effects of rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) envenomation upon the mobility and death rate of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) and wild mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).  Bull. Maryland Herpet. Soc. 27(4):189-194. PDF

50.  1992.  Zalisko, E. J. and K. V. Kardong.  1992. Histology and histochemistry of the Duvernoy's gland of the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis (Colubridae).  Copeia 1992(3):791-799.

51.  1992.  Mori, A., N. Narumi, and K.V. Kardong.  1992. Unusual defensive behavior in Oligodon formosanus (Ophidia, Colubridae) Head slashing and tail striking.  J. Herpet. 26(2):213-216.

52.  1992.  Kardong, K.V.  1992. Proximate factors affecting guidance of the rattlesnake strike.  Zool. Jb. Anat. 122:233-244. PDF

53.  1993.  Kardong, K.V. and P.A. Lavín-Murcio.  1993. Venom delivery of snakes as high-pressure and low-pressure systems.  Copeia 3:644-650. PDF

54.  1993.  Bels, V., V. Goose, and K.V. Kardong.  1993. Kinematic analysis of the lacertid lizard, Lacerta viridis.  J. Zool. 229:659-682.

55.  1993.  Kardong, K.V. and J. Haverly.  1993. Drinking by the common boa, Boa constrictor.  Copeia.  3:808-818. PDF

56.  1993.  Coleman, K. L. Rothfuss, H. Ota, and K.V. Kardong.  1993. Kinematics of egg-eating by the specialized Taiwan snake, Oligodon formosanus.  J. Herpet. 27(3):320-327. PDF

57.  1993.  Kardong, K.V.  1993. The predatory behavior of the northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus:  Laboratory vs wild mice as prey.  Herpetologica 49(4):457-463.

58.  1993.  Hayes, W.K. P. Lavín-Murcio, and K.V. Kardong.  1993. Delivery of Duvernoy's secretion into prey by the brown tree snakes, Boiga irregularis (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Toxicon 31(7):881-887. PDF

59.  1993.  Rochelle, M. and K.V. Kardong.  1993. Constriction vs. envenomation in prey capture by the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis (Squamata: Colubridae).  Herpetologica 49(3):297-300.

60.  1993. Weinstein, S.A., B.G. Stiles, M.J. McCoid, L.A. Smith, and K.V. Kardong.  1993. Variation of lethal potencies and acetylcholine receptor binding activity of Duvernoy's secretions from the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis Merrem. Nat. Tox. 2(2):187-198.

61.  1993.  Lavín-Murcio, P., B.G. Robinson, and K.V. Kardong.  1993.  Cues involved in relocation of struck prey by rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis oreganus.  Herpetologica.  49(4):463-469.

62.  1994.  Alving, W. and K. V. Kardong.  1994.  Aging in Snakes:  Results of long-term captivity on rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) predatory behavior.  Zoo Biology.  13:537-544.

63.  1994.  Weinstein, S.A. and K. V. Kardong.  1994.  Properties of Duvernoy's secretions from opisthologlyphous and aglyphous colubrid snakes.  Toxicon.  32:1161-1185.

64.  1994.  Bels, V. L., M. Chardon and K. V. Kardong.  1994.  Biomechanics of the hyolingual system in squamata.  In, Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, 18:197-236.

65.  1995.  Hayes, W. K., P. Lavín-Murcio and K. V. Kardong.  1995.  Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis oreganus) meter venom when feeding on prey of different sizes.  Copeia.  1995(2):337-343.

66.  1995.  Berkhoudt H., K. V. Kardong and G. A. Zweers.  1995.  Mechanics of drinking in the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.  Zoology, Analysis of Complex Systems.  98:92-103. PDF

67.  1995.  Lavín-Murcio, P. A. and K. V. Kardong.  1995.  Scents related to venom and prey as cues in the poststrike trailing behavior of rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis oreganus.  Herpetologica.  51(1):39-44.

68.  1995.  Bels, V. L. and K. V. Kardong.  1995.  Water drinking in snakes:  evidence for an esophageal sphincter.  Journal of Experimental Zoology.  272:235-239.

69.  1996.  Kardong, K. V. 1996. Snake toxins and venoms:  an evolutionary perspective.  Herpetologica.  52(1):36-46. PDF

70.  1996.  Haverly, J. P. and K. V. Kardong.  1996. Sensory deprivation effects on the predatory behavior of the Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus.  Copeia 1996(2):419-428.

71.  1996.  Kardong, K. V.  1996. Evolution of aging:  theoretical and practical implications from rattlesnakes.  Zoo Biology 15:265-277.

72.  1996.  Alving W. Rockhill and K. V. Kardong. 1996. The role of the vomeronasal organ in rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis oreganus) predatory behavior. Brain, Behav., Evol. 48:165-172. PDF

73.  1996. Kardong, K. V. 1996. Mechanical damage inflicted by fangs on prey during predatory strikes by rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis oreganus. Bull. Maryland. Herp. Soc. 32:113-118.

74.  1996. Young, B. A., and K. V. Kardong. 1996. Dentitional surface features in snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Amphibia-Reptilia 17:261-276. PDF

75.  1997. Kardong, K. V., T. L. Kiene, and E. K. Johnson. 1997. Proximate factors affecting the predatory behavior of the red spitting cobra, Naja mossambica pallida. J. Herpetol. 31:66-71.  PDF

76.  1997. Kardong, K. V., T. L. Kiene, and V. Bels. 1997. Evolution of trophic systems in squamates. Neth. J. Zool. 411-427. PDF 

77.  1998. Kardong, K. V. 1997/8. Venom delivery by the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, and the habu, Trimeresurus flavoviridis. In, Problem Snake Management (G. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar, and H. Tanaka eds), Cornell University Press (in press).

78.  1997/8. Kardong, K. V. and G. A. Zweers. 1997/98. Vertebrate evolution at geological boundaries: introduction. Zoology 100:121-127.

79.  1997/8. Kardong, K. V. 1997/8.  Squamates at geological boundaries: unbounded evolution. Zoology 100:152-163.

80.  1998. Kardong, K. V. and V. L. Bels. 1998. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics. J. Expl. Biol. 201:837-850.

81. 1999. Kardong, K. V. and H. Berkhoudt. 1999. Rattlesnake hunding behavior: Correlations between plasticity of predatory performance and neuroanatomy. Brain, Behav, Evol. 53:20-28.

82. 1999. Kardong, K. V. 1999. Venom delivery by the brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) and the Habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis). Problem snake management: The Habu and the Brown Treesnake. G. H. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar and H. Tanaka. Ithaca, Comstock Publishing Associates: 128-138.

83. 1999. Smith, T. L., K. V. Kardong, and V. L. Bels. 1999. Prey capture behavior in the blue-tongued skink, Tiliqua scincoides. J. Herpet. 33:362-369.

84. 2000. Smith, T. L., K. V. Kardong, and P. A. Lavin-Murcio. 2000. Persistence of trailing behavior: cues involved in poststrike behavior by the rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus). Behaviour 137:691-703.

85. 2000. Smith, T. L., and K. V. Kardong. 2000. Absence of polarity perception by rattlesnakes of envenomate prey trails. J. Herpet. 34(4):621-624.

86. 2001. Kardong, K. V. and V. L. Bels. 2001. Functional morphology and evolution of the feeding apparatus in squamates. In, Vertebrate Functional Morphology: Horizon of research in the 21st century.  pp 173-219. (H. M. Dutta and J. S. Datta Munshi, eds). Science Publishers, Inc. (UK).

87. 2002. Kardong, K. V. 2002. Colubrid snakes and Duvernoy’s “venom” glands. J. Toxicol.—Toxin Rev. 21(1): 1-15.

88. 2002. Smith, T. L., G.D.E. Povel, and  K. V. Kardong. 2002. Predatory strike of the tentacled snake (Erpeton tentaculatum). J. Zool., London 256-242. PDF

89. 2002. Frazzetta, T. H. and K. V. Kardong. 2002. Prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 416:387-388.

90. 2002. Kardong, K. V. and T. L. Smith 2002. Proximate factors involved in rattlesnake predatory behavior: A review. In, Biology of the Vipers. Pp. 253-266 (G. Scheutt, M. Hoggren, M. E. Douglas, H. W. Greene, eds). EMP, press.

91. 2003. Kardong, K. V. 2003. Biomechanics and evolutionary space: a case study. In, V. L. Bels, J-P Gasc, and A. Casinos. Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution. Pp. 73-86.

93. 2003. Kardong, K. V. 2003.  Epigenomics: The new science of functional and evolutionary morphology. Animal Biology 53(3):225-243.

94. 2005.  Smith, T. L. and K. V. Kardong 2005. Blood is not a cue for poststrike trailing in rattlesnakes. In, Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10. R. T. Mason, M. P. LeMaster and D. Muller-Schwarze. Berlin, Springer Press. 10: 389-396.

95. 2005.  Parker, M. R. and K. V. Kardong 2005. Rattlesnakes can use airborne cues during post-strik relocation. In,  Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10. R. T. Mason, M. P. LeMaster and D. Muller-Schwarze. Berlin, Springer Press. 10: 397-402.

96. 2005.  Smith, T. L., G. S. Bevelander, and K. V. Kardong. 2005. Influence of prey odor concentration on the poststrike trailing behavior of the northern Pacific Rattlesnake. Herpetologica 61:111-115.

97. 2006. Bevelander, G. S., T. L. Smith, K. V. Kardong. 2006. Microhabitat and prey odor selection in the foraging pigmy rattlesnake. Herpetologica  62(1):47-55.

98.  2006. Young, B. A. and J. Harris. 2006. Auditory sensitivity of the northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus: Do behavioral responses conform to physiological performance? Northwest Sci. 80(3):218-223.

99.  2007. Young, B. A. and K. V. Kardong. 2007.  Mechanisms controlling venom expulsion in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. J. Exp. Zool. 307:18-27.

100. 2008. Parker, M. R., B. A. Young, and K. V. Kardong. 2008. The forked tongue and edge detection in snakes (Crotalus oreganus). An experimental test. J. Comp. Psychol.   122(1):35-40.

101. 2009.  S. A. Weinstein, T. L. Smith, K. V. Kardong. 2009 Reptile Venom Glands: form, function, and future. In, Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. S. P. Mackessy (ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton. PDF

102. 2009. Weaver, R. E. and K. V. Kardong. 2009 Microhabitat and prey odor selection in Hypsiglena chlorophaea.  Copeia 2009(3):475-482. PDF

103. 2010. Weaver, R. E. and K. V. Kardong. 2010. Behavioral responses to potential prey through chemoreception by the sharp-tailed snake (Contia tenuis). Northwest. Nat. 91:58-62. PDF

104.  2012. Kardong, K. V. 2012. Replies to Fry et al. (Toxicon 2012, 60/4 434-448). Part B. Properties and biological roles of squamate oral products: The "venomous lifestyle" and preadaptation. Toxicon 2012, XXX 1-3.  PDF