How an individual feels about their body image is defined as body esteem. Jouard and Secord developed methods for measuring body cathexis. Body satisfaction and body esteem are also commonly used alternatives to the term body cathexis.

Alpher, V. S. (1983). Multifactor measurement of bodily feelings: A validational study. Unpublished master's thesis, Vanderbilt University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception

Atkins, T. V. (1976). Development of a perception measure as a basis for determining the relation of self-concept and clothing. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(07), 3363B, Texas Woman's University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept

Baggs, N. (1988). Clothing interest, self-esteem, body satisfaction and fashion opinion leadership compared with weight of college females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine whether there were differences in clothing interest, body satisfaction, fashion opinion leadership qualities and self-esteem among underweight, average weight, and overweight females. The Baggs scale composed of Likert style questions was administered to 241 females (18-45 years). Results indicate no significant difference in clothing interest, self-esteem, and fashion opinion leadership qualities for underweight, average weight and overweight females regardless of which weight chart was used to group the subjects. Positive correlations were found between body satisfaction and self-esteem, clothing interest and body satisfaction, and self-esteem and fashion opinion leadership qualities.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Self-esteem; Body satisfaction

Bailey, S. M., Goldberg, J. P., Swap, W. C., Chomitz, V. R., & Houser, R. F. J. (1990). Relationships between body dissatisfaction and physical measurements. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9(4), 457-461.

ABSTRACT: Relationships among components of the Body Dissatisfaction (BD) subscale, Body Mass Index (BMI), and relevant anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference and abdominal skinfold were examined in 127 freshman and sophomore women. Results indicate strong correlation between BD components and their anatomic referents.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body weight; Body measurements; Height-weight ratio; Body mass index

Balogun, J. A. (1986). Reliability and construct validity of the body cathexis scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62(3), 927-935.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS) and the relationship between the BCS and the Tennessee Self-concept Scale (TSCS)-subscales. A total of 50 female college students completed the TSCS once and the BCS twice. Findings suggest that the BCS is reliable and has a measure of construct validity. The BCS scores were significantly correlated with those on physical self, personal self, family self, social self, and total positive, but not with moral-ethical self or self-criticism.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Barak, Y., Sirota, P., Tessler, M., & Achiron, A. (1994). Body esteem in Israeli university students. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 31(4), 292-295.

ABSTRACT: The study administered the Body Esteem Scale (BES) to 203 female and 173 male Israeli undergraduates to establish the baseline ratings of BES in Israel. These ratings were compared with the ratings established for 633 female and 311 male US undergraduates. The results suggest that differences between US and Israeli subjects' body esteem may reflect aspects of social change related to a differing life-cycle in the two countries.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Body image; Cross-cultural differences; Female vs. male college students

Ben-Tovim, D. I., & Walker, M. K. (1991). Women's body attitudes: A review of measurement techniques. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10(2), 155-167.

ABSTRACT: A study that was designed to assess the range of women's attitudes toward their own bodies and to examine the application of available instruments to anorexic, bulimic, and other clinical populations. Instruments reviewed include the Body Cathexis Scale; Eating Disorders Inventory; Food, Fitness, and Looks Questionnaire; Body Shape Questionnaire; and Draw A Person.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image ; Projective techniques; Body shape; Body cathexis

Berkowitz, K. S. (1980). Judgments of body size and body satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body satisfaction

Boudreau, J. A. L. (1988). Women with mastectomies and reconstructive surgery: Body satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction and outlook. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(02), 537B, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

ABSTRACT: Differences in body satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, life-satisfaction, and outlook in four groups of women were investigated using the Body Cathexis Scale (Secord and Jourard, 1953), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961), the Life Satisfaction Inventory-A (Neugarten et al., 1961), and the Outlook Scale (Ferman & Aiken, 1964). Women who did not have a history of cancer or a mastectomy (N=61), women with mastectomies who were not consulted regarding reconstruction (N=37), women who had consulted (N=37), and women with reconstruction (N=41) were assessed with these scales as well as a demographic questionnaire. It was suggested that women with mastectomies for cancer were able to adjust to the loss of a breast by making "downward comparisons," thereby enabling them to deny feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, and that these women felt in control by virtue of making various choices regarding reconstruction.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Self-esteem; Mastectomies

Boyd, M. A. (1989). Living with overweight. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 25(3-4), 48-52.

ABSTRACT: A study administered to 20 women to assess their beliefs and attitudes about overweight. The subjects redefined their negative experiences into more positive and realistic ones that included recognizing additional sources of stress that contributed to low self-esteem and negative body image.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body awareness; Obesity

Brace, K. D. (1991). Women's body images: The impact of alcohol/drug abuse on body cathexis scores. Psychology A Journal of Human Behavior, 28(2), 27-32.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to measure the body images of women classified by self-report as abusers or nonabusers of alcohol and/or drugs by using modified Body Cathexis Scale. Subjects were 18 college student nonabusers of alcohol (mean age 29 years) and 18 drug/alcohol abusers (mean age 37 years) who were enrolled in a treatment program. Findings suggest that counselors working with women alcohol/drug abusers need to encourage more appreciation of physical appearance as part of the recovery process.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Alcohol or drug abuse

Brock, L. E. (1988). The relationship of self-esteem to body image in college age women: A report of an Independent study for the division of behavioral sciences and human services. (Undergraduate research papers). Maryville College.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Brunn, A. C. (1975). A study of the relationships among self-concept, body cathexis, and sociometric status of institutionalized adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36(09), 4749B, Baylor University.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept

Burgard, D. L. (1991). Correlates of self-esteem, perceived self-control, body size acceptance and intention to lose weight in women over 200 pounds. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(01), 557B, The Wright Institute.

ABSTRACT: Since the culturally desirable weight is "natural" only for the thinnest 10% of the population (Garner et al, 1980), there remains 90% of the population whose weight exceeds the slender ideal. This study explores how women over 200 pounds are negotiating this dilemma and what its effects have been of their self-esteem, sense of self-control, acceptance of their body size, and intention to lose weight. Results showed strong positive relationships between self-esteem, perceived self-control, and intention to lose weight. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to their refutation of the cultural belief that it is impossible to like or accept oneself if one is not slender, their challenge to assumptions about the benefits of believing that one can control one's weight, and their illumination of possible directions for therapy with obese women.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Eating disorders; Body size

Burger, G. D. (1976). Self-esteem and body satisfaction as they relate to clothing attitudes: A comparison of freshmen and junior college women. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Bushy, A. S. (1987). Body image and self-esteem during pregnancy: A comparison of rural and urban populations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Cado, S. (1989). Cognitive behavior therapy with and without size perception training for women with negative body image. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Vermont.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Social perception; Cognitive therapy

Campbell, K. M. (1978). Self-concept of normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescent females. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception; Obesity

Carey, I. L. S. (1988). Changes in clothing use, body cathexis, and self-concept as the result of participation in an image improvement through dress program. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine the influence of an image improvement through dress program on clothing use, body cathexis, clothed body cathexis, and self-concept. Subjects were 29 working women who were administered a body cathexis scale, clothed body-cathexis scale, Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and clothing use instrument. T-test determined body cathexis scores had improved, but the clothing use instrument indicated the improvement was not necessarily due to the adoption of clothing styles. Body cathexis scores compared to clothed body cathexis scores indicated that clothed body cathexis and body cathexis were different constructs.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept

Cash, T. F., & Hicks, K. L. (1990). Being fat versus thinking fat: Relationships with body image, eating behaviors, and well-being. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(3), 327-341.

ABSTRACT: Two correlational studies investigated the independent relationships of actual and self-classified weight to body image attitudes, weight concerns, eating and dieting behaviors, and psychosocial well-being. In study 1, subjects self-classified as overweight, relative to normal-weight controls, reported a less-adaptive body image, more frequent binge eating and dietary restraint to lose weight, and poorer well-being. In study 2, actually being overweight produced only a few group differences, particularly for females, from subject self-classified as overweight.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight; Self-report

Chowdhary, U. (1993). Self-perceived somatotypes and clothing-related behavior of older men and women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(1), 307-322.

ABSTRACT: An investigation of relationship between clothing-related behavior of older men and women and self-perceived somatotypes was administered among 507 elderly subjects (65-88 years old, 70% women). Results indicate that body-type was significantly related to significance of apparel, self-esteem, and chronological age. No sex differences were found in perception of body-types.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Clothing related behavior; Sex & self-perceived somatotypes; Body shape

Chwast, R. (1978). The interrelationship among accuracy of body size perception, body satisfaction and the body image in obese and non-obese women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body satisfaction; Obesity

Clance, P. R., Matthews, T. V., & Joesting, J. (1979). Body cathexis and self-cathexis in an interactional awareness training class. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 48(1), 221-222.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of a Psychology of Adjustment class on body-acceptance and self-acceptance in 22 undergraduates. An Introductory to Psychology class with 45 undergraduates served as a control group. Results indicated that the adjustment group showed a larger gain on both scales than the control. Sex, interacted with Group significantly on the Body-Cathexis Scale only.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-cathexis

Clance, P. R., Thompson, M. B., Simerly, D. E., & Weiss, A. (1994). The effects of the gestalt approach on body image. Gestalt Journal, 17(1), 95-114.

ABSTRACT: The study hypothesized that Gestalt-therapy awareness exercises and intervention techniques would result in positive changes in subjects' attitudes toward body and self and that treatment would correlate with the sex of the subjects. A total of 15 undergraduate students and 15 control subjects participated in the study. Gestalt therapy brought about a significant positive change in the subjects' attitudes toward body and self.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image

Creekmore, A. M. (1974). Clothing related to body satisfaction and perceived peer self. (Research Report, Agricultural Experiment Station 239). Michigan State University.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Clothing and dress

Davies, K., & Wardle, J. (1994). Body image and dieting in pregnancy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38(8), 787-799.

ABSTRACT: The study evaluated body image, body satisfaction, and body shape ideals in pregnant women to identify whether the pregnancy role confers respectability or acceptability on a weight gain which would otherwise be unacceptable. Results indicated that pregnancy was not associated with any relaxation of body image ideals, as pregnant women chose a similar size of figure to non-pregnant women as their ideal.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body satisfaction; Body shape

Davis, L. L. (1981). Conformity and judgments of fashionability. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(05), 1839B, Purdue University.

ABSTRACT: Conformity in judgments of the fashionability of garments was investigated using an established conformity paradigm developed by Asch (1951) and Sherif (1935). Subjects were 160 female undergraduate students. Participants made a reassessment of their original opinions of the fashionability of six women's suits after being exposed to opinions attributed to one of the four reference groups. Greater conformity resulted for the more subjective judgments of future fashionability than to judgments of present fashionability. Individuals conformed more to the opinion of others when the opinion was attributed to fashion experts than when the opinion was attributed to housewives, college females, or career women.

KEYWORDS: Conformity; Judgments of fashionability

Davis, L. L. (1985). Perceived somatotype, body cathexis, and attitudes toward clothing among college females. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61(3, Pt 2), 1199-1205.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the relationship between perceived somatotype and body cathexis and assessed the perceived ideal somatotype among 91 female college students (aged 19-24). Subjects were administered a perceived somatotype scale, a body-cathexis scale, and several measures of fashion and clothing interest and use. Results indicate that the ectomorphic build was perceived as the ideal somatotype for college females. As subjects' self-perceived somatotype deviated from the ideal and moved toward the mesomorphic and endomorphic, body cathexis scores decreased. Contrary to stereotypic assumptions, perceived somatotype was unrelated to the fashion and clothing measures.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Somatotype

Davis, C. (1990). Body image and weight preoccupation: A comparison between exercising and non-exercising women. Appetite, 15(1), 13-21.

ABSTRACT: Relationships were examined among certain personality characteristics and variables which assess weight, diet, and appearance concerns for two groups of women, one group who were avid exercisers, and a second group who were occasionally or not at all exercisers. Dedication to regular exercise may foster an distorted impression of body size and an increased likelihood of developing an obsessive attitude toward weight control.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body mass index; Appetite disorders

Davis, L. C. (1990). Self-esteem, body satisfaction, and depressive thought content: Relationship to eating behaviors in a female high school population. Unpublished master's thesis, Pacific Lutheran University.

ABSTRACT: A battery of questionnaires consisting of the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck's Depression Inventory, the Body Cathexis Scale, and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale was used to determine the relationship among eating behaviors and self-esteem, cognitive/depressive thought patterns and body satisfaction in a high school female populations. The questionnaires were administered to a sample of 45 high school sophomore females. Results indicate that eating behaviors and self-esteem, cognitive/depressive thought patterns, and body satisfaction were significantly related for the females in this study.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body satisfaction; Eating behaviors

Davis, C., Durnin, J. V. G. A., Dionne, M., & Gurevich, M. (1994). The influence of body fat content and bone diameter measurements on body dissatisfaction in adult women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 15(3), 257-263.

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the simultaneous influence of various anthropometric factors on body dissatisfaction in adult women while controlling for psychological and behavioral factors known to covary with it. It appears that anatomical factors that are resistant to change by caloric restriction or physical activity are a significant influence in the degree to which women report discontent with their body shape.

KEYWORDS: Body measurements; Body fat; Self-perception; Body image; Body size; Body shape

Denniston, C. D. (1990). Body image and depression among college women: A multimodal approach. Unpublished master's thesis, Loyola College, Maryland.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception

DiNucci, J. M., Finkenberg, M. E., McCune, S. L., McCune, E. D., & Mayo, T. (1994). Analysis of body esteem of female collegiate athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(1), 315-319.


KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Collegiate athletes

Dolce, J. J., Thompson, J. K., Register, A., & Spans, R. E. (1987). Generalization of body size distortion. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(3), 401-408.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed levels of body size overestimation for self-relevant body areas and corresponding sites on a normal-sized department store mannequin in 34 asymtomatic, normal-weight college females (17 Blacks, 17 Whites). Results indicate a greater number of significant correlations among self-estimates and mannequin scores than significant relationships between self and mannequin distortion quotients.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body weight

Doss, F. D. (1990). Clothing availability from department and specialty stores: Implications for self-esteem, body satisfaction, and design line preference of large-size women. Unpublished master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Clothing and dress

Dudas, T. (1981). The psychopathic character structure: a correlatonal study of body type and personality correlates. Doctoral dissertation, California school of professional psychology, Berkley/Alameda.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical evidence for a correlation between body-type and personality style. It was predicted that two qualified raters could rate body type with a high inter-rater reliability. ...(abridged)

KEYWORDS: Body type; Personality

Durham, M. E. (1985). Body weight in relationship to self-concept and assertiveness. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-concept; Self-esteem; Obesity

Eigner, J. B. (1984). Interaction and building of body-concept and self-concept over the lifespan: A study of 20 women age 40 to 60. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(06), 1901B, Saint Louis University.

ABSTRACT: The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and found two routes available to a high body-concept (HBC). The first route was a high self-concept (HSC) the best guarantee of which was a stable family life. The second was a lowered self-concept which focused interest in the body to increase shaky self-esteem. Although some women who had HSC but, with difficulties of obesity or health problems, downrated their body-concepts, they were not preoccupied with their bodies . Some women with LSC or MSC were preoccupied with their bodies and so critical that they were not able to rate their body concepts highly. With parents who produced HSC daughters, the majority of these women also had HBC. The parents provided an emotionally solid family environment, encouraged sibling closeness and opportunities for physical activity. Parents who were unable to provide solid emotional support for daughters often gave confusing or hostile messages about maturing.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept; Body-concept; Body image

Eisman, R. (1993). The body type/temperament mismatch and self-actualization. Psychological Reports, 73(3), 942-942.


KEYWORDS: Body type

Engelman, S. R., Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. (1982). Self and body-cathexis change in therapy and yoga groups. Journal of The American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 29(3), 77-88.

ABSTRACT: The study compared group therapy and yoga group participants for changes in self- and body-cathexis. The sample consisted of 45 subjects from non-body-oriented group therapy (mean age 38 years), 33 subjects from yoga groups (mean age 25 years), and 42 control subjects (mean age 23 years). The subjects were asked to complete the Body-Cathexis and the Self-Cathexis Scales before, and ten weeks after, the group meetings began. Results show that yoga participants changed significantly more on self-cathexis and body cathexis. Therapy groups did not show significant body-cathexis change in comparison to controls, but they did show significant positive self-cathexis change. To produce change in body concept and self-concept, group therapy is likely to be most effective when intrapsychic, interpsychic, and techniques involving the body are combined.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Erdman, C. K. (1991). Nothing to lose: A naturalistic study of size acceptance in fat women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(04).,.

ABSTRACT: The cumulative experiences and personal accounts of body size acceptance in fat women presented in this naturalistic study provide insights into their commonalties. The theme of public misconceptions versus private realities was examined from a societal, body/medical, and mind perspective. The data indicate that the body image constructs of these women are different from the distorted body image of women with eating disorders. As role models and leaders, they sought out support and also gave support to other fat women.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Finkenberg, M. E., DiNucci, J. M., McCune, S. L., & McCune, E. D. (1993). Body esteem and enrollment in classes with different levels of physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(3, Pt 1), 783-792.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated differences in self-reported scores on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) of college women and men who were participated in classes requiring vigorous or little physical activity, respectively. The correlation between participation and body esteem was also examined. The BES was given to the subjects during the first and the last weeks of one semester. MANOVA indicated significant significant differences initially among the two groups of women on three subscales (Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Control, and Physical Condition), while mean for overall scores for body esteem were higher for women in the vigorous activity group than in the comparison group. No significant differences were found at the later testing. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences on men at either testing.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise

Foley, M. H. (1989). Professional female models: Body esteem and causal attributions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University.

ABSTRACT: The study was aimed to determine whether professional female fashion models differ from female nonmodels in how they perceive themselves and in how they perceive causality as related to events in their lives. Subjects consisted of 59 models and 60 non-models who were compared on the Body Esteem Scale and on measures of causality using the Causal Dimension Scale for eight scenarios involving successes and failures with men and women in social and work contexts. Results suggest that there were differences in how models perceive themselves and the causes for events in their lives as compared to non-models. The study concludes that women in general, and models in particular, may be socialized differently, with physical appearance stereotyping beginning early. The higher frequency of eating disorder symptoms for models may reflect the societal introjection of a "thinness at any cost" injunction.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Body image; Female models

Ford, S. (1993). A comparison of body cathexis, garment fit satisfaction and uniform preferences of college women basketball players. Unpublished master's thesis, University of North Carolina, Greensboro.


KEYWORDS: Body ; Body cathexis; Uniform

Franzoi, S. L., & Shields, S. A. (1984). The body esteem scale: Multidimensional structure and sex differences in a college population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(2), 173-178.

ABSTRACT: The study describes the development of norms and reliability and validity data for an objectively scored body esteem scale. The new measure is related to the Body Cathexis Scale but does not assume a priori that body esteem is a unidimensional construct. Subjects consisted of 366 female and 257 male undergraduates and were administered the Body Cathexis Scale and asked to scale each item on a 5-point Likert Scale. Results of factor analysis revealed that body esteem is a multidimensional construct that differs for males and females. For males, the body esteem dimensions dealt with physical attractiveness, upper body strength, and physical condition. For females, the dimensions dealt with sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body esteem; Body cathexis

Franzoi, S. L., & Herzog, M. E. (1986). The body esteem scale: A convergent and discriminate validity study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50(1), 24-31.

ABSTRACT: Two studies investigated the convergent and discriminate validity of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) developed by the first author and S.A. Shields using 154 male and 193 female undergraduates. Good convergent and discriminate validity was demonstrated by the male Upper Body Strength and the Physical Condition subscales and by the female Weight Concern, Physical Condition, and Sexual Attractiveness subscales. Overall results confirm the BES's validity as a multidimensional measure of body satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body esteem

Franzoi, S. L. (1994). Further evidence of the reliability and validity of the body esteem scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(2), 237-239.


KEYWORDS: Body esteem

Frederick, N. J. (1977). The relationship between body-cathexis and clothing market satisfaction of overweight women. Unpublished master's thesis, Washington State University, Pullman.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Clothing and dress

Freeman, F. P. (1977). Perceived body weight, body cathexis, and clothing interest: Importance of overweight and normal weight women. Unpublished master's thesis, Ohio State University.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Clothing and dress

Frost, E. A. (1968). Values, body cathexis, and clothing attitudes of male university students. Unpublished master's thesis, Utah State University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Clothing and dress

Furst, D. M., & Tenenbaum, G. (1984). A correlation of body cathexis and anxiety in athletes and nonathletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 15(3), 160-168.

ABSTRACT: The study tested the assumption that participation in a physical activity such as athletics is intrinsically satisfying and associated with a positive body image and with lower anxiety. Subjects were 35 male members on varsity teams at a university and 24 male nonathletes (never having participated in interscholastic or intercollegiate sports). Subjects were measured for body cathexis, using a 5-point rating scale, and were administered the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The hypotheses were only partially supported. Success and satisfaction were probably not major factors in determining high and low body cathexis for athletes but were major factors for nonathletes. Subjectively perceived satisfaction helped explain the body cathexis participation relationship.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Gahm, R. C. (1972). Perceived body size and self-evaluation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Self-evaluation; Child psychology

Gardner, R. M., Morrell, J., Urrutia, R., & Espinoza, T. (1989). Judgments of body size following significant weight loss. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(5), 603-613.

ABSTRACT: The accuracy of body image (BIs) was measured in 40 subjects who had lost significant amounts of weight, using a video methodology. Results illustrate a procedure for precisely measuring judgments of body size. This approach allows for the application of traditional psychophysical techniques to the measurement of an aspect of behavior in conditions ranging from eating disorders to schizophrenia.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body weight

Geiger, K. M. (1987). Physical self-concept of female body builders, female athletes, and female non-athletes. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Northern Iowa.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception

Gleghorn, A. A. (1988). The functional relationship between self-esteem and body image. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Green, M. W., & Rogers, P. J. (1993). Selective attention to food and body shape words in dieters and restrained nondieters. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14(4), 515-518.



Guaraldi, G. P., Orlandi, E., Boselli, P., & Tartoni, P. L. (1995). Body size perception and dissatisfaction in female subjects of different ages. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 64(3-4), 149.


KEYWORDS: Body ; Body size

Haimovitz, D., Lansky, L. M., & O'Reilly, P. (1993). Fluctuations in body satisfaction across situations. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(1), 77-84.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the degree of body satisfaction (BDS) among 144 undergraduate women in four situations: (a) Walking by a group of attractive men and women at the beach in a bathing suit, (b) Having a conversation with a close female friend over lunch, (c) Getting dressed to go to school in privacy, and (d) Trying on bathing suits in the dressing room of a department store. Subjects were asked to complete the Color-A-Person Body Dissatisfaction Test for each situation. Results indicated that BDS scores reflect how subjects felt about their bodies when they were being especially self-critical, rather than how they felt in everyday situations.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body weight; Self-perception; Body image

Haines, S. P. (1981). A study of the relationship between expressed satisfaction or dissatisfaction with body weight and level of self-esteem. Unpublished master's thesis, Loyola College.


KEYWORDS: Weight satisfaction; Body satisfaction; Self-esteem

Hall-Polus, B. (1994). Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in an elderly population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, Lexington.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Hammond, S. M., & O'Rourke, M. M. (1984). A psychometric investigation into the body cathexis scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(5), 603-605.

ABSTRACT: The study administered the Body-Cathexis Scale to 398 subjects (aged 14-22 years) to assess its psychometric properties. Results indicate a strong unidimensional measure with high internal consistency. The scale is recommended for use in research examining the role of body feelings in self-concept and personality.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Harmatz, M. G. (1987). The misperception of overweight in normal and underweight women. Journal of Obesity and Weight Regulation, 6(1), 38-54.

ABSTRACT: The study compared 75 normal and underweight female college students who classified themselves as overweight with 178 female college students who did not show this misperception. Weight-misperceiving subjects showed lower self-esteem, greater problems with food regulations and diet, negative emotional states, and a variety of eating disordered behaviors, including cycles of bingeing and extreme dieting. Their inability to reduce their normal bodies to their unrealistic ideal body size kept them in a permanent state of frustration.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-esteem

Hayes, D. (1995). Size acceptance. Healthy Weight Journal, 9(2), 35.

ABSTRACT: Loving your body, moving your body, feeding your body

KEYWORDS: Body ; Size

Head, S. S. (1989). Sizing up : fashion, fitness, and self-esteem for full-figured women. New York, N. Y.: Simon and Schuster.


KEYWORDS: Sizing; Clothing and dress; Obesity

Hicks, R. A., & Gaus, W. (1983). Self-reported excess body weight in short- and long-sleeping college students. Psychological Reports, 52(3), 930.

ABSTRACT: The study pretested a group of more than 200 college students with a questionnaire on sleep habits and included an item that asked them to estimate the degree (in pounds) that they were underweight or overweight. Subjects who had for 6+ months been short or long sleepers and who reported being satisfied with their sleep were identified. Findings also indicated that short sleepers were more likely to be overweight than long sleepers.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Hodge, C. N., Jackson, L. A., & Sullivan, L. A. (1993). The freshmen 15: Facts and fantasies about weight gain in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17(1), 119-126.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the "freshman 15," which refers to the belief that college students gain an average of 15 lb. during their first year of college. Participants were 61 female college students. It was found that the majority of study participants remained the same weight during the first six months of college. Results also indicated that a favorable body image was related to weight loss among those who lost weight.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Body weight; Body image; Self-esteem; Self-monitoring personality

Hwang, J. (1993). Body image, self-esteem, and clothing of men and women aged 55 years and older. Unpublished master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Clothing and dress

Johnson, K. K. (1990). Impressions of personality based on body forms: An application of Hillestad's model of appearance. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 8(4), 34-39.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated whether impressions of personality varied by size and shape of male and female body forms in 385 undergraduates. Each subject received a questionnaire with a line drawing of a male or female representing an ectomorphic (thin), ecto-mesomorphic (thin/muscular), mesomorphic (muscular), endo-mesomorphic (heavy/muscular) or endomorphic (heavy) body form. Each subject rated one body form on 22 characteristics. Subjects' impressions of personality were influenced by body form information. Subjects rated male body forms as generally more "masculine" than female body forms and the mesomorphic body form was rated overall highest on the factor "activity." Male body forms appear to have more appeal overall than female body forms except in the case of the female ectomorph.

KEYWORDS: Body form

Joyner, C. (1993). Clothing interest, self-esteem, health, and body satisfaction of women age 55 and older. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Jupp, J. J. (1983). Change in unconscious concern with body image following treatment for obesity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47(5), 483-489.

ABSTRACT: (The Body Cathexis Scale was used to elicit unconscious concerns about the body in obese and normal subjects. In study one, 80 nonobese subjects (17-56 years) was used to gather baseline data and to examine the discriminate validity of the scale as a measure of unconscious rather than conscious body concern. In study two, a total of 143 obese subjects (19-66 years old) showed a significantly greater concern with the body than that shown by the normative group. In study three, 33 obese subjects (21-57 years) were tested before and after weight-reduction counseling, levels of concern declined to normal levels at the conclusion of counseling. Results showed that the change in body concern due to counseling and efforts to raise self-esteem through ego-enhancing suggestions resulted not only in weight loss but also changes in attitude toward the self.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Body cathexis; Obesity

Kelson, T. R., Kearney-Cooke, A., & Lansky, L. M. (1990). Body image and body beautification among female college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(1), 281-289.

ABSTRACT: (The study examined correlates of body image (public and private body consciousness (BCS), body competence (BCM)) and beautification (BEU) in 245 White female undergraduates. Results indicate that correlations between private BCS and BEU scales were significant, indicating that public BCS is related to the use of cosmetics. There was a positive correlation between BCM and body cathexis. BEU was positively related to feelings about the body and the self for nonfeminists but not for feminists.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Body beautification

King, M. R. (1976). Self-esteem and body esteem effects in a job interview: A video playback study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(05), 2744A, The University of Texas, Austin.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body-esteem; Job interview

Kirk, C. C. (1994). Taming the diet dragon: Using language and imagery for weight control and body transformation. (2nd ed.). St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Imagery

Kurtz, R. M. (1966). The relationship of body attitude to sex, body size, and body build in a college population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body build; Body attitude

Kuskowska-Wolk, A., Karlsson, P., Stolt, M., & Rossner, S. (1990). The predictive validity of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. International Journal of Obesity, 13(4), 441-453.

ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that individuals in the Western society tend to report values of weight and height that conform with current norms. The body mass index (BMI) was analyzed by using data from a random sample that includes 182 women with a mean age of 62 years and 119 men with a mean age of 56 years from a health care center. Multiple multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between self-reported (subjective) and controlled (objective) values. Results indicate that there is a systematic tendency for high values to be underestimated and for low ones to be overestimated.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Height-weight ratio; Self-reporting

Kwon, Y., & Parham, E. (1994). Effects of state of fatness perception on weight conscious women's clothing practices. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 12(4), 16-21.

ABSTRACT: The study identified the dimensions of clothing functions given 2 different situations: (1) for when a person feels fat or feels they have gained weight (Fat State), (2) when a person feels more slender or feels they have lost weight (Slender State). Significant differences were found between clothing functions for the Fat and Slender States, indicating that the motivations concerning clothing functions for the 2 states were basically different.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight; Self-perception

Lai, S.-M. M. (1983). A comparison of body composition, body cathexis, and attitude toward obesity in women with different levels of physical activity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to identify significant differences in body composition, body cathexis, and attitudes toward obesity of women in various age groups involved in different levels of physical exercise. Subjects (17-64 years) were classified into three age groups: college-age, beyond college-age, and middle-aged. Three categories exercises were assigned: very active, moderately active, and relatively inactive. Results indicated that different levels of physical activity performed by women had significant effects on their body fat percentage and their body cathexis, Subjects in the very active level of physical exercise showed the lowest percentage of body fat and the most positive attitudes toward their bodies. Women's obesity attitudes were not affected by either age or levels of physical activity.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Body composition; Obesity; Body cathexis; Physical activity

Lamb, C. S., Jackson, L. A., Cassiday, P. B., & Priest, D. J. (1993). Body figure preferences of men and women: A comparison of two generations. Sex Roles, 28(5-6), 345.



Larrimer, J. A. (1982). A comparative study of body cathexis and statements about clothing of feminist and non-feminist women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(10), 4751B, University of Missouri, Columbia.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Clothing and dress

Lass, N. J. (1982). Correlational study of subjects' self-reported and measured heights and weights. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 11(4), 707-711.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed a behavioral approach to the treatment of bulimia, focusing on increasing control over eating, eliminating food avoidance, and changing maladaptive attitudes. Treatment is conducted on an outpatient basis, and may be divided into 2 parts. Part 1 is the interruption of the viscous cycle of overeating and vomiting by helping the patient control food intake. Part 2 helps the patient to modify abnormal attitudes to food, eating, body weight, and shape. In a study with 11 females (17-27 years) with bulimia, preliminary findings are promising, with improvement appearing to be maintained. Components of the treatment may benefit patients who simply complain of overeating.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia

Lauffer, P. L. (1987). The effect of gender, gender role, and weight training on self-concept and body cathexis. Unpublished master's thesis, The University of Arizona.

ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study were (a) to examine the self-concepts and body cathexis of both males and females engaged in an eleven-week weight training course, and (b) to examine if differences in gender role would influence the relationship of strength to self-concept and body cathexis. Each group (weight trainers and controls) was administered the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and the Body Cathexis Scale. Results indicated pre- and post- differences between and among the groups and genders and the genders and the gender roles.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept

Levine, N. L. (1990). Women's experiences of body image and self-esteem: A comparison study of heterosexual and lesbian women; a project based upon an independent investigation. Unpublished master's thesis, Smith College School.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Lisi, R. T. (1984). A comparative study of body weight and life satisfaction in elderly females. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Delaware.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity; Body satisfaction; Weight satisfaction

Loftis, D. E. (1981). The relationship between self-esteem, body esteem, weight loss, and weight loss maintenance. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(06), 2537B, Georgia State University.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationship between weight loss maintenance and changes in self-esteem and body esteem. Subjects consisted of 30 males and 46 females (a mean age of 37.6 years) in a 12-month weight loss program. The study concluded that (a) there is a positive relationship between weight loss maintenance and improvements in self-esteem and body esteem, (b) there was a positive relationship between weight loss and improvements in self-esteem and body esteem in a treatment period as brief as eight months, (c) age of onset of obesity did not appear to be a significant factor on levels of self-esteem and body esteem for adults subjects.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body esteem; Weight loss

Mahoney, E. R., & Finch, M. D. (1976). Body cathexis and self-esteem: A reanalysis of the differential contribution of specific body aspects. Journal of Social Psychology, 99(2), 251-258.

ABSTRACT: A sample of 98 male and 129 female college students responded to a standard self-esteem rating scale (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in addition to a body-cathexis questionnaire. Results indicate that body aspects previously considered most important to self-esteem are largely a function of the failure of previous studies to examine the role of suppresser variables. Body aspects stereotypically considered important contributed minimally to self-esteem level, and the total proportion of variance in self-esteem accounted for by body cathexis was contributed by a small number of body aspects.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-esteem

Mahoney, E. R., & Finch, M. D. (1976). The dimensionality of body cathexis. Journal of Psychology, 92(2), 277-279.

ABSTRACT: The study is an exploratory examination of the dimensionality of body perception in terms of satisfaction with body aspects. Subjects were 98 male and 128 female college students who rated their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with 22 or 20 body characteristics. Results indicate that the complex of body aspects can be discussed in terms of a relatively small number of dimensions.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Manley, J. W. (1991). Self-worth, body cathexis, and satisfaction with available selection for those who wear different-size maternity clothing. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(02), 1041B, Virginia Polytechinic Institute and State University.

ABSTRACT: The study was to determine the effects of self-reported dress size category on self-worth, body cathexis, and satisfaction with available selection of maternity clothing for pregnant females. Sample of 83 pregnant females was derived from prepared childbirth classes. Respondents exhibited no significant difference in global self-worth and the associated subscales or satisfaction with available selection of maternity clothing. Results imply that pregnancy influences how satisfied women feel about their body and that large-size women's body cathexis may improve during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body cathexis; Pregnancy

Marano, H. E. (1991). Style is not a size: Looking and feeling great in the body you have. New York: Bantam Books.


KEYWORDS: Body size

Markee, N. L., Carey, I. L., & Pedersen, E. L. (1990). Body cathexis and clothed body cathexis: Is there a difference. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(3, Pt 2), 1239-1244.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of wearing clothing on perceptions of the body, using a modified (nude) Body Cathexis Scale (BCS) and the clothed Body Cathexis Scale (CBCS) developed by the authors. A total of 29 working women (aged 25-45 years) completed the scales twice, 3-4 months apart. Pretest CBCS scores were significantly higher than BCS scores for facial complexion, profile, weight distribution, eyes, waist, arms, shape of legs, general appearance, face, hips, body build, thighs, chest, and total score. Posttest results were similar except that differences regarding hips and chest were not significant.

KEYWORDS: Body build; Body cathexis

McAllister, R., & Caltabiano, M. L. (1994). Self-esteem, body image, and weight in noneating-disordered women. Psychological Reports, 75(3, Pt 1), 1339-1343.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the self-esteem of 69 women attending weight-loss centers in relation to attitudes toward body and weight, actual weight, number of diets undergone, and weight fluctuations. The results indicated that there was no association between self-esteem and either eating restraint or significant others' attitudes. However, the study found that women with stable weight had the highest self-esteem, whereas women on diets were indicated having low self-esteem.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Self-esteem; Body-image; Body-weight

McIntyre, P. K. (1989). Sex differences in the interaction of self-esteem and body esteem at two universities. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(09), 2591A, University of Pennsylvania.

ABSTRACT: The study examined sex differences in the dimensions of self-esteem and body esteem, and the relationship of these differences to the cultural standards of body shape for college age men and women. Male (N=121) and female (N=109) students from two universities completed surveys in summer school classes. Results indicated that male students emphasized physical abilities and muscular size and strength in self-evaluation, whereas female students were concerned with their aesthetic appearance, and focused particular attention on their weight.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Self-esteem

Molinari, E. (1995). Self-others perception in a clinical sample of obese women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80(3, Pt 2), 1283-1289.

ABSTRACT: The study used correspondence analysis on responses to Semantic differential scores to examine self-perception in a clinical sample of 120 obese women in order to compare their attitudes toward obese, thin, and normal persons. Analysis shows that subjects' judgments of the "real me" were very close to those of the "ideal me." The results also indicated that self-attributed rating contrasted markedly with the negative ratings attributed to obesity.

KEYWORDS: Self-perception; Body weight

Murphy, N. (1978). Body-cathexis and self-esteem: Their relation to weight loss among females. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Houston, Victoria.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-esteem

Norder-Pietrzak, M. M. (1994). Perceived body image selected lifestyle practices and their relationship to physical self-esteem. Unpublished master thesis, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

O'Neill, J. A. (1976). Self-cathexis and body-cathexis participants in selected environmental sport activities. Unpublished master's thesis, Oregon State University.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Oh, K. Y. (1995). Gender role orientations of divorced women as related to interest in clothing and body satisfaction. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction

Oscarson, J. M. (1969). A study of adjustment, body cathexis, perceived ideal body type, and objective body type in pre-, mid-, and post-pubescent girls. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31(01), 232A, Indiana University.


KEYWORDS: Ideal body; Body image; Body cathexis; Body type

Oscarson, J. (1970). A study of adjustment, body cathexis, perceived ideal body type, and objective body type in pre-pubescent, mid-pubescent, and post-pubescent girls. Indiana university.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body type; Perceived ideal

Pasqualli, R., Casimirri, F., Tortelli, O., Pascal, G. C., & Anconetani, B. (1993). Body size, and body fat distribution, psychological factors and dietary habits, in relationship to menoupause: Results of the virgilio-menopause-health (VMH) project. Advances in The Biosciences, 90, 337.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body size; Body fat distribution; Dietary; Menopause

Penalis, F. M. (1968). Self-esteem and conformity in clothing of adolescent girls as reflected by brand name awareness and preference. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30(03), 1349B, The Pennsylvania State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Conformity; Adolescence

Posavac, H. D. (1994). Social comparison contrast effects on measures of body esteem: A study of the interaction between contextual and perceiver characteristics. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Utah.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body image; Mass media; Body esteem

Powers, P. D., & Erickson, M. T. (1986). Body image in women and its relationship to self-image and body satisfaction. Journal of Obesity and Weight Regulation, 5(1), 37-50.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationship among body image, body satisfaction, and self-image in 164 undergraduate women (aged 18-50 years). Subjects completed a body image silhouette scale, verbal checklist, and body cathexis scale (child, adolescent, and current status); reported on their body size (child, adolescent, and current); and reported their mothers' current body size. Findings indicate that body image was not related to body satisfaction, but it was related to self-image. Subjects who perceived themselves as thin had the highest self-image scores. Findings suggest that young women have a tendency to view thinness, rather than average weight, as a goal to reach.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Self-image

Prieto, A. G., & Robbins, M. C. (1975). Perceptions of height and self-esteem. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40(2), 395-398.

ABSTRACT: The study administered a battery of test protocols designed to estimate own and peer's height on a 5-point Likert scale among 69 male (12-15 years old). Although no relationship was found between the actual height of subjects and their self-esteem, positive and significant relationships were found between their own, peers' and teacher's perceptions of their height and self-esteem.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Prudhomme, C. (1990). The indigenous psychologies of body weight for three American cultures: Anglo-American and Mexican-American. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

ABSTRACT: The study compared 238 Anglo-Americans (N=91), African-American (N=70), and Mexican-American (N=77) in their implicit beliefs about male and female figures (exemplars) that differed in body weight (fat male, fat female, thin male and thin female). Each subject responded to a six-part questionnaire, administered in a group setting. Subjects wrote a description of each of the four examplers; rated on the strength of specific psychological needs; indicated which exempler was most similar to themselves; selected the figure that represented their ideal weight; and indicated whether or not they were satisfied or dissatisfied with their current weight. Results revealed that subjects in the three ethnic groups differed in their descriptions of the four exemplars, especially in the use of psychosocial and physical characteristics. Subjects also differed in their ratings of psychological needs for the four exemplars. There were no differences evident between male and female subjects on the characteristics or needs, although men and women within ethnic groups frequently differed from each other. Ethnic differences were found for four of the six weight-related terms: ideal, masculine, feminine, and fat.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Rasmussen, S. A. (1995). A comparison of body esteem and body image among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White American women. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Body schema

Reynolds, J. A. (1982). A correlation study of self-body cathexis of obese women and their attitudes toward physical activity. Unpublished master's thesis, Oregon State University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Obesity; Body cathexis

Rodin, J., Silberstein, L., & Striegel-Moore, R. (1984). Women and weight: A normative discontent. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 32, 267-307.

Cultural norms and female sex-role stereotypes and attitudes provide a context for understanding women's preoccupation with thinness and their pursuit of beauty. In examining biological aspects of weight reduction, it is suggested that the contemporary beauty ideal of "thinness equals attractiveness" prescribes a body weight that is unrealistically low due to developmental milestones that tend to increase fat (e.g. puberty, pregnancy, menopause) and women's metabolic systems. It is argued that women's preoccupation with their appearance comes out of shame and social pressure and leads to psychological consequences such as decreased self-esteem, distorted body image and feelings of helplessness and frustration in response to unsuccessful dieting efforts.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Rogers, E. L. (1983). Women's apparel relative to self-concept and appropriateness to profession. Dissertation Abstract International, 43(09), 2908A, Texas Woman's University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the apparel of employed professional women relative to self and ideal self-concept, and perceptions of appropriateness to selected professions. The sample consisted of 140 women who resided within Dallas Metroplex. Results revealed no significant relationships between the socio-economic status or educational attainment and self and ideal self-concepts of the sample.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept

Salmansohn, K. (1995, October 01). Self-image: The body thing. New Women, 25, 128.


KEYWORDS: Self-image

Saltzer, E. B. (1982). The weight locus of control (WLOC) scale: A specific measure for obesity research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46(6), 620-628.

ABSTRACT: The 4-item Weight Locus of Control (WLOC) scale was developed for prediction of behaviors in relation to weight reduction. The test-retest reliability of the WLOC was established in testing with 110 undergraduates, and the discriminate validity of the scale was determined in contrast to Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the 10-item version of the Health Locus of Control Scale. In study 1, the predicted relative importance of personal attitudes toward losing weight and of social pressures for weight loss in determining intentions toward losing weight was achieved for WLOC internals and externals (116 undergraduates) who valued health and/or physical appearance highly. In study 2, a total of 115 women (15-68 years) beginning a weight control program who were categorized as internal on the WLOC scale were more likely complete the program than WLOC externals.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity

Sanders, A. U. (1989). The effect of fear of weight gain imagery on real and ideal body image assessment. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Eating disorders; Ideal body

Schettler, P. J. (1984). A conceptual systems study of self-esteem. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(11), 3511B, The Catholic University of America.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to contribute to the understanding of self-esteem by testing several hypotheses about alternative sources of standards from which individuals may derive criteria used in judging self-worth, and about the relationship of self-esteem, degree of articulation of long-range goals, and the general motivational orientation to one's activity in terms of either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A total of 173 subjects (18 to 52 years) completed a self-report, 98-item questionnaire developed for this study. The study shows that a cognitive approach to the study of self-esteem can shed light on the alternative bases of feelings of self-worth, and that understanding of the various sources of standards used for self-evaluation may help to explain individual differences in self-esteem as well as differences in motivational orientation.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Secord, P. F. (1953). The appraisal of body-cathexis: Body cathexis and the self. American Psychological Association.


KEYWORDS: Body-cathexis

Sena, R. E. (1992). The development of body weight and shape preferences and dieting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the development of body weight and shape preferences and dieting, children's concepts of attractiveness, body image, knowledge of dieting, and self-reported dieting behavior. The study was comprised of three tasks: silhouette questions and attractiveness judgments, knowledge of dieting, and self-report of weight loss and weight gain. Results showed that the majority of children express body dissatisfaction by five years of age. The nature of body dissatisfaction, however, seems to change with age. Children reported attempts at weight loss more than weight gain. Girls were more likely to report attempts at weight loss than were boys.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Dieting

Shim, S., Kotsiopulos, A., & Shapurian, R. (1990). Body cathexis of adult men and women: Effects of age and number of children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(3), 880.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Shim, S., & Kotsiopulos, A. (1990). Women's physical size, body cathexis, and shopping for apparel. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(3, Pt 1), 1031-1042.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated differences in body-cathexis (BCX), satisfaction with apparel shopping, and shopping orientation among 482 petite, average, and tall/larger sized women (aged 25-54 yrs). Results show that subjects differed in (1) total BCX and BCX on 5 body parts (height, facial features, face, leg length, and arms); (2) satisfaction with the apparel shopping attributes of size range and available, number of stores, and general fit of clothing; and (3) the shopping orientations of confident shopper and catalog shopper.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body cathexis

Shim, S., Kotsiopulos, A., & Knoll, D. S. (1990). Short, average height, tall, and big men: Body cathexis, clothing and retail satisfactions, and clothing behavior. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(1), 83-96.

ABSTRACT: A total of 269 short, average height, tall, and big men were surveyed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Results showed mean differences in body cathexis and in satisfactions and dissatisfactions with clothing retail attributes, but not in clothing behavior.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body cathexis; Clothing behavior

Shim, S., Kotsiopulos, A., & Knoll, D. S. (1991). Body cathexis, clothing attitude, and their relations to clothing and shopping behavior among male consumers. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 9(3), 35-44.

ABSTRACT: The behavior of male apparel consumers based on the interaction between body cathexis and clothing attitude was studied on 269 men from national random sample to examine the differences in clothing behavior, shopping behavior, and individual characteristics. Subjects were divided into four groups. Analyses reveal that the four groups differed in clothing behavior (e.g. fashion innovativeness, self-confidence in clothing), shopping behavior (e.g. store patronage, shopping interest), and individual characteristics (e.g. sport activity, annual wardrobe expenditure). Results suggest that body dissatisfaction may not be necessarily correlated with clothing attitude in one direction.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Body cathexis; Clothing attitude; Shopping behavior

Shochat, E. (1970). A study of the relationship between specified personality traits and body-cathexis of male participants and non-participants in high school athletics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31(05), 2079A, University of Massachusetts.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image

Shontz, F. C. (1964). Body-part size judgment. .


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Skuse, D. (1987). The psychological consequences of being small. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 28(5), 641-650.

ABSTRACT: The study asserts that since body shape and size of children are determinants of perceived age, adults' caregiving responses, and sense of self-worth and personal identity, children with retarded growth often experience emotional, social, psychological, and learning difficulties. The Turner syndrome often presents with short stature associated with cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, leading to withdrawal and immaturity. It is concluded that well-adjusted children of small stature have families who foster a sense of well-adjusted children of small stature have families who foster a sense of competence and self-reliance.

KEYWORDS: Body shape

Slade, P. D., Dewey, M. E., & Newton, T. (1990). Development and preliminary validation of the body satisfaction scale (BSS). Psychology and Health, 4(3), 213-220.

ABSTRACT: The study developed a simple paper-and-pencil test designed to measure satisfaction/dissatisfaction with sixteen body parts. The factorial structure of the scale and the three summative scales (head parts and body parts dissatisfaction) are described in the study. Internal consistency of the scales was found to be acceptable.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction

Smith, C. I. (1990). Causal attribution, self-efficacy, and body image as perceived and described by obese and over weight persons. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Carolina.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity

Snyder, A. E. (1975). Sensuous clothing in relation to self-esteem and body satisfaction. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body satisfaction

Srebnik, D. S., & Saltzberg, E. A. (1994). Feminist cognitive-behavioral therapy for negative body image. Women and Therapy, 15(2), 117.


KEYWORDS: Body; Feminist; Body image

Theodorakis, Y., Doganis, G., & Bagiatis, K. (1991). Age differences and structural validity for the Greek version of the body cathexis scale. Psychological Reports, 68(1), 43-49.

ABSTRACT: The study recruited 152 women, aged 18-45, who participated in a physical fitness to complete the Greek version of the Body Cathexis Scale. Factor analysis revealed six factors that explained 52.5 percent of the total variance: (a) Physical Fitness, (b) Total Appearance, (c) Health and Skills, (d) Face, (e) Ears and Chin, and (f)Extremities. The study concluded that age group was not associated with overall body satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Thomas, C. D., & Freeman, R. J. (1990). The body esteem scale: Construct validity of the female subscales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(1-2), 204-212.

ABSTRACT: A study of 200 women from a university community who completed the Self Body Esteem Scale (BES), the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Self-Consciousness Scales, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, a figure rating task, a body size estimation procedure, and items concerning weight satisfaction and attractiveness.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Body image; Self-esteem; Construct validity

Thompson, J. K., & Connelly, J. J. (1988). Experimenter gender and size estimation accuracy. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7(5), 723-725.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the possibility that experimenter gender may have an affect on female body size estimations, by assigning 64 female subjects to a male or female experimenter and asking them to estimate body widths for the waists, hips, and thighs. Experimenter gender had no effect on levels of size-estimation accuracy.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Thompson, J. K., & Tantleff, S. (1992). Female and male ratings of upper torso: Actual, ideal, and stereotypical conceptions. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7(2), 345-354.

ABSTRACT: Using a measure of body image consisting of schematic figures of males and females differing only in chest/breast (CB) size, 73 female and 57 male undergraduates estimated their own CB size, selected their ideal conception of CB, and rated the size they thought reflected the average male's and female's preference for CB. Subjects also made ratings based on the size that they thought best characterized descriptors of the figures. Results indicated that men's conception of an ideal breast was larger than women's conception. Positive descriptor were consistently associated with larger size ratings.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Thurston, J. L., Lennon, S. J., & Clayton, R. V. (1990). Influence of age, body type, fashion, and garment type on women's professional image. Home Economics Research Journal, 19(2), 139.


KEYWORDS: Body type

Trexler, S. L. (1992). The effects of appearance altering breast augmentation surgery on the self-esteem and body image of women. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Tucker, L. A. (1981). Internal structure, factor satisfaction, and reliability of the body cathexis scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53(3), 891-896.

ABSTRACT: The study administered the Body-Cathexis Scale on a pre- and post-test basis to 83 college males. The study found that test-pretest reliability coefficient was .87, suggesting that the Body-Cathexis Scale is stable over the time. Results revealed independent factors, such as Health and Physical Fitness, Face and Overall Appearance, Subordinate and Independent Body Features, and Physique and Muscular Strength. Analysis of the relative satisfaction reported for each axis indicated significant differences among the factors.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Waddell-Kral, L., & Thomas, C. D. (1990). Body attitudes and eating behaviors of female clothing sales personnel. Psychological Reports, 67(2), 451-456.

ABSTRACT: A study to test a hypothesis that women who worked in settings that emphasized physical appearance would have more disturbed body attitudes and eating behaviors than college women. The study found that sales personnel, who perceived their appearances to be of greater importance in their work, were more concern about dieting and weight, as reflected on the Drive for Thinness subscale of the EDI. The overall results indicate that women who work in fashion clothing sales do not appear to be at increased risk for disturbances in body attitudes or eating behavior.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Body image; Body attitudes; Eating behaviors

Wahwassuck, J. E. (1991). Physical self-acceptance in the spinal cord injured adult. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City.


KEYWORDS: Body image

Walker, J. Y. (1991). Interpersonal adjustment in childhood-onset versus adulthood-onset obese women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University.

ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between the age of onset of obesity and the level of interpersonal adjustment among 65 obese women who were enrolled in the Optifast weight loss and treatment program. The mean of subjects was 42.31 years and the mean reported age of onset of obesity was 16.46 years. Results did not support the hypothesis that the age of onset of obesity was not significantly correlated with the level of interpersonal adjustment among the women in this study. Post hoc analyses revealed that the highest body mass index (BMI) attained by subjects was correlated with their level of interpersonal adjustment. This result suggests obese subjects are at risk of experiencing significant psychological problems, regardless of the etiology of their condition. The results were discussed in terms of Seeman's models of personality integration (1983) and positive health (1989).

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Interpersonal adjustment

Ward, T. E., & McKeown, B. C. (1987). Association of body cathexis and morphological variables on college-aged females in an exercise setting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64(1), 179-190.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the association and predictability between body cathexis and morphology in 41 college females who were experiencing either obesity or anorexia nervosa. The morphological evaluation included six skinfold measurements, eight muscle circumferences, and six skeletal diameters. Results show that morphological variables and body cathexis scores had little predictive value or association with each other.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis

Wardell, B. C. (1990). Empirical, theoretical, and methodological analysis of the body esteem scale. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Houston.

ABSTRACT: The Body Esteem Scale (BES) was developed to determine the aspects of human bodies adults use to make attractiveness judgments. The study examined the methodological, theoretical, and empirical issues extant in the BES. Gender differences in the physical attractiveness of the face and of the body were examined.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body esteem scale

Warner, B. L. (1981). A study of the impact of menarche on self-esteem, level of anxiety, body image, and psychological masculinity and femininity in young adolescent girls. Boston University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Warren, S. A. (1986). An assessment of body image and self-esteem among middle-aged women. Unpublished master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Weinhardt, J. (1982). A descriptive study of global body attitude and relative body weight. Unpublished master's thesis, Kent State University.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity

Weitz, B. V. (1991). Women's satisfaction with body image and its relationship to self-esteem. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nebraska, Omaha.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Wendel, G., & Lester, D. (1988). Body cathexis and self-esteem. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(2), 538.

A factor analysis of correlations based on the responses of 32 male and 27 female undergraduates to a self-esteem scale and a body-cathexis scale (P.F. Secord and S.M. Jourard, 1953) found that the associations of self-esteem and body cathexis were different for males and females and were observed for a limited number of factors.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body cathexis

Werner, R. M. (1988). Measurement of self-esteem in normal weight and overweight/obese adult females. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Kansas.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Williamson, D. A., Gleaves, D. H., Watkins, P. C., & Schlundt, D. G. (1993). Validation of self-ideal body size discrepancy as a measure of body dissatisfaction. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15(1), 57-68.

ABSTRACT: The study administered the Body Image Assessment, the Body Image Testing System, and the Body Image Detection Device to 18 women (mean aged 26 yrs) with bulimia nervosa, 34 obese women, and 58 noneating disordered women. Measures of self-ideal body size discrepancy correlated more highly with measures of body dissatisfaction than measures of current body size perception, ideal body size, body size estimation accuracy, or indices based on actual body size. Estimation of both current and ideal body size significantly predicted overall body dissatisfaction; thus, both self and ideal body size measures were significant components in determining body size dissatisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Body size

Wolf, K. P. (1992). The relationship between body cathexis, locus of control, and purpose in life of middle aged women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(05), 2558B, United States International University.

ABSTRACT: The study sought to determine whether women in early or late middle age perceive their bodies with satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and whether there is a difference between the perceptions of women in their forties versus those in their fifties. No significant differences were identified between groups on body cathexis or locus-of-control using MANOVA, whereas purpose in life was significantly different. Differences were identified between groups on strengths of correlation of body cathexis and locus-of-control, and body cathexis and purpose in life using correlation analysis with the Pearson.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Locus of control

Wolf, M. S. (1995). The relationship between feminist identification and body satisfaction in university women. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Cincinnati.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction

Wright, E. J., & Whitehead, T. L. (1987). Perceptions of body size and obesity: A selected review of the literature. Journal of Community Health, 12(2,3), 117-129.

ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the association between perceived and objective weight. When comparing actual norms for 1959 with those of 1979, it appears that the average weight for women under 30 was consistently several pounds heavier in 1979 than their 1959 counterparts. Findings show that body size is an important factor in the self-concept of obese persons and body image disturbance is characteristic of the severely overweight.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body weight; Obesity

Young, S. M. (1992). Sex-role ideology and body esteem among women. Unpublished master's thesis, Ball State University.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Self-esteem; Sex-role

Zohn, P. G. (1992). Body size estimation accuracy among normal college females using two variations of the method of limits. Unpublished master's thesis, Humboldt State University.


KEYWORDS: Body size