FITNESS AND EXERCISE
Fitness has been embraced by Americans as the key to health and physical
attractiveness. Exercise and dieting are often considered components of
Adame, D. D., Johnson, T. C., & Cole, S. P. (1990). Physical
fitness in relation to amount of physical exercise, body image, and locus
of control among college men and women. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
70(3, Pt 2), 1347-1350.
ABSTRACT: The study assessed the level of exercise in 123 male and 120 female
college freshmen to investigate the relationship of 4 variables to physical
fitness: (1) amount of exercise, (2) the physical fitness dimension of body
image, (3) locus of control, (4) gender. Findings show that there was a
significant interaction between gender and amount of exercise. However,
more men than women engaged in 5+ hrs/week of exercise. Subjects with an
internal locus of control and a good body image were more fit than externally
oriented subjects and subjects with poor body image, respectively.
KEYWORDS: Body; Physical fitness; Body image
Anonymous. (1995, July). Sports: Body, mind, and spirit. The Leatherneck,
Armstrong, J. E., Lange, E., & Mishra, S. (1992). Reported exercise
practices and self-image of adult male and female recreational exercisers.
Family and Community Health, 14(4), 20-28.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the extent to which selected measures of
self-image account for differences in exercise frequency and satisfaction
with physical fitness among 930 male (47%) and female (53%) recreational
exercisers (aged 20-80 years). Results indicate that perceived need to lose
weight was widespread and may be an important motivation to exercise, particularly
among women. A variation in satisfaction with physical fitness among subgroups
(sex, age, body weight, and exercise frequency) implies that more research
can be done to determine how exercisers differ in their exercise and fitness
expectations and self-assessment.
KEYWORDS: Body; Self-image; Physical fitness
Belling, L. R. (1992). The relationship between social physique
anxiety and physical activity. Unpublished master's thesis, University
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
KEYWORDS: Body; Physical activity; Body image; Exercise
Benzel, N. B. (1994). The relationship between physical activity
and self-efficacy in older adults. Unpublished master's thesis, University
of North Carolina, Greensboro.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-efficacy
Bertherat, T. (1979). The body has its reasons: Anti-exercise
and self-awareness. New York: Avon Books.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise
Bolton, B., Renfrow, N. (1979). Personality characteristics associated
with aerobic exercise in adult females. Journal of personality assessment,
ABSTRACT: Using an index of aerobic conditioning, 27 adult females joggers
and 25 nonexercisers were identifies. During individual interviews basic
demographic data were obtained, and blood pressure, vital capacity, resting
pulse rate and body fat were measured. All Ss completed form A of the 16
PF. Significant differences occurred on 2 primary factors and 1 secondary
dimension of the 16 PF. The probability of 3 marginal significant differences
out of 24 comparisons is well within the range of expected chance fluctuation.
Thus, data provide no evidence that personality characteristics are predisposing
factors in the adoption of an aerobic jogging program by young adult female.
The only significant training effect was lower pulse rate. Results are compared
to those of a previous investigation of male joggers.
KEYWORDS: Personality; Aerobic exercise; Adult females
Bothwell, J. H. (1988). The effects of an aerobic exercise program
on self-concept, health locus-of-control, and health-related behaviors of
Zuni Indians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Fielding Institute.
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine (1) the effects of participation
in an aerobics exercise program on the variables of self-concept, health
locus of control, and health-related behaviors of Zuni Indians, (2) significant
differences between exercisers and decliners on these variables. Subjects
were 43 women and 6 men who enrolled in a 12-week aerobic dance program.
Weight loss was found to be a factor in only two of the six significant
scores, supporting the hypothesis that exercise made a significant impact
on the self-concept of finishers, regardless of weight lost.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-concept
Brown, S. W. (1991). Aerobic exercise in the Psychological treatment
of adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Alabama.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of aerobic exercise in a population
of clinically diagnosed adolescents. Dependent physical measures of height,
weight, body mass index, and skinfolds, physiological measures of resting,
exercise, and recovery heart rates, together with psychological measures
of depression, anxiety, mood states, self-esteem, and self-efficacy were
assessed pre, mid, and post 9-week treatment and at 4-week follow-up. Improvements
on measures of recovery heart rate, depression, anxiety, hostility, confused
thinking, and fatigue were shown in females in the treatment group, with
increases in vigor and self-efficacy for both males and females in the treatment
KEYWORDS: Aerobic exercise; Psychological treatment; Adolescents
Bynum, S. P. (1995). Physical activity, body image, and depression
in young female adults. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Rhode
KEYWORDS: Body image; Depression
Carpenter, K. (1989). The effects of physical activity on body
satisfaction. Unpublished master's thesis, Appalachian State University.
KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body image
Carr, N. J. (1962). The effect of isometric contraction and progressive
body conditioning exercises on selected of physical fitness and badminton
achievement of college women. Unpublished master's thesis, University
of Washington, Seattle.
KEYWORDS: Body; Isometric exercise; Physical fitness
Cash, T. F., Novy, P. L., & Grant, J. R. (1994). Why do women
exercise: Factor analysis and further validation of the reasons for exercise
inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(2), 539-544.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the factor structure and correlates of the
Reasons for Exercise Inventory (REI) in 101 female university students who
regularly exercise and asked them to complete the 24-item REI (with 1 added
item), two standardized body-image measures, and to report their weekly
frequency of exercise. Results indicated that fitness/health management,
stress/mood management, and socializing appearance/weight management was
associated with a more negative body image independent of actual body mass
and was the only motive related to self-reported frequency of exercise.
KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise
Cocklin, J. C. (1989). The effects of physical fitness and body
cathexis on self-concept change in women after aerobic conditioning.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(10), 4594B, Oklahoma State University.
ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study were (a) to examine the effects of participation
in an aerobic dance class on self-concept, and (b) to determine if level
of physical fitness and feelings about the body (body cathexis) were significantly
related to self-concept change. Subjects were 69 women, aged 20-50 who were
randomly assigned to experimental and placebo groups, who participated in
exercise classes three nights per week for eight weeks. Results showed that
body cathexis and physical fitness were not found to be significantly related
to self-concept change according to the measures used. Findings supported
the use of physical activity as a viable treatment modality for practitioners
working with female clients exhibiting low self-esteem.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Physical fitness
Conger, P. R. (1964). Physical performance and body form as related
to physical activity of college women. Unpublished master's thesis,
Michigan State University.
KEYWORDS: Body form; Exercise
Couturier, L. E. (1986). Exercise as a predictor of body-cathexis
and self-concept in pregnant women. Thesis (D.P.E), Springfield College.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Self-perception
Crawford, S. A. (1992). Social physique anxiety, body satisfaction,
and exercise settings. Unpublished master's thesis, Auburn University.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the ways that social physique anxiety (SPA)
was associated with exercise behaviors among 104 women. Weight satisfaction,
body satisfaction, and reasons for exercise were measured. Subjects were
asked to complete the Attitudes Toward Exercise Settings Questionnaire after
watching two video presentations of aerobics classes in which one class
wore attire emphasizing the physique and the other wore attire de-emphasizing
the physique. Results indicated self-presentational reasons for exercising
were positively associated with SPA. The study also found that SPA was associated
with favorability of attitudes toward both exercise settings, but that SPA
was negatively associated to the setting emphasizing physique and was positively
related to the setting de-emphasizing physique. These associations suggest
that SPA-associated perceptions may deter individuals from exercising in
KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body image; Self-perception; Self-presentation
Crawford, S., & Eklund, R. C. (1994). Social physique anxiety,
reasons for exercise, and attitudes toward exercise settings. Journal
of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 70-82.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the ways that social physique anxiety (SPA)
was associated with exercise behaviors among 104 women. Subjects completed
measures of SPA, weight satisfaction, body satisfaction, and reasons for
exercise. Subjects also completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise Settings
Questionnaire after watching two videos aerobics. Findings indicated that
SPA was associated with favorability of attitudes toward both exercise settings,
but that SPA was negatively associated to the setting de-emphasizing physique.
These associations suggest that SPA-associated perceptions may deter individuals
from exercising in some settings.
KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Social physique anxiety
Curless, M. (1992). Exercise: the key to staying young. We chart
the landscape of the active versus sedentary body in youth and beyond.
Self., 14(9), 178.
Darden, E. (1974). A comparison of body image and self-concept
variables among various sport groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Florida State University.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Self-concept
Davis, C., & Cowles, M. (1991). Body image and exercise: A study
of relationships and comparisons between physically active men and women.
Sex Roles, 25(1-2), 33-44.
ABSTRACT: Samples of 112 female (aged 14-58 years) and 88 male (aged 16-64
years) self-identified regular exercisers were compared on variables related
to body image, weight and diet concerns, and degree of exercise participation.
Findings indicated that women were more dissatisfied with their bodies and
placed greater importance on their appearance as an influence on their feelings
of well-being. Thus, women were more likely than men to exercise and to
try and lose weight.
KEYWORDS: Body Satisfaction; Body image
Davis, C., Elliott, S., Dionne, M., & Mitchell, I. (1991). The
relationship of personality factors and physical activity to body satisfaction
in men. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(7), 689-694.
ABSTRACT: The study examined a battery of assessments given to 103 male
university students and 88 males (aged 16-64 years) who engaged in recreational
or assiduous exercise. It was found that neuroticism was a significant predictor
of body dissatisfaction in both groups; however, it accounted for a substantially
greater proportion of the variance among exercising men. Results also indicated
that physical activity participation and body dissatisfaction were negatively
related, although it is not clear whether exercise promoted body satisfaction
or whether men who were satisfied with their appearance were likely to be
KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Physical activity
Davis, C., & Fox, J. (1993). Excessive exercise weight preoccupation
in women. Addictive Behaviors, 18(2), 201-211.
ABSTRACT: The study sought to (1) investigate whether excessive exercisers
have specific characteristics in common other than that they exercise a
great deal, (2) identify the degree of relationship between exercising and
weight preoccupation and the extent to which those classified as excessive
on either dimension have psychological characteristics in common. The study
assessed 351 adult women on several psychological, behavioral, and body
composition measures including weight preoccupation and leisure-time physical
activity participation. Excessive exercisers reported greater body satisfaction
and body focus, were less emotionally reactive (neurotic), and more extroverted
KEYWORDS: Body awareness; Body weight; Body satisfaction; Body composition
Delignieres, D., Marcellini, A., Brisswalter, J., & Legros, P. (1994).
Self-perception of fitness and personality traits. Perceptual and Motor
Skills, 78(3, Pt 1), 843-851.
ABSTRACT: The study examined how middle-aged adults perceived their own
physical fitness. Results indicated that self-appraisal of physical capacities
was mainly influenced by a general attitude toward the physical self, and
physical self-worth was related to self-esteem, anxiety, and masculinity.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Personality traits; Self-perception; Physical fitness
Enns, M. P., Drewnoski, A., & Grinker, J. A. (1987). Body composition,
body size estimation, and attitudes towards eating in male college athletes.
Psychosomatic Medicine, 49(1), 56-64.
ABSTRACT: The study examined behaviors and attitudes related to food and
body weight among 26 intercollegiate wrestlers and 21 intercollegiate swimmers
and cross country skiers (all males aged 18-21 years). Findings indicate
that wrestlers differed significantly from other athletes with regard to
dieting behavior and fluctuations in body weight. The study concludes that
wrestlers may represent a population at risk for the newly reported sports-induced
disturbances in eating.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body composition; Body weight
Epstein, L. H. (1982). A comparison of lifestyle change and programmed
aerobic exercise on weight and fitness changes in obese children. Behavior
Therapy, 13(5), 651-665.
ABSTRACT: The study assessed the effects of lifestyle (LS) of programmed
aerobic exercise (AE), with and without a diet, on weight, fitness, and
exercise adherence with 37 obese children (8-12 years) over a 17-month period.
The LS program allowed subjects to increase energy expenditure by engaging
in a wide variety of daily games and activities, while the AE program required
subjects to perform an aerobic exercise daily. Results show equivalent and
relative weight changes across all groups during the 8-week intensive treatment,
with LS subjects losing more additional weight and maintaining their weight
loss better than the AE subject during maintenance and follow-up. Fitness
changes, as measured by heart rate during exercise and recovery, improved
more during intensive treatment for the AE than the LS groups.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Aerobic exercise; Obesity
Epstein, D. (1983). The psychological effects of an aerobic fitness
program on normal adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Adelphi
University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the psychological effects of an aerobic
fitness program upon psychologically and anxiety, self-satisfaction, and
body satisfaction. Subjects were 22 male and 23 female adults in each group,
and were administered in a pre-post test design, with the experimental period
being 16 weeks. No significant change from pre to post test were found as
a function of group, nor was there a significant change as a function of
the Group x Sex interaction.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Aerobic fitness program
Falkel, J. E., Sawka, M. N., & Levine, L. (1985). Upper to lower
body muscular strength and endurance ratios for women and men. Ergonomics,
ABSTRACT: The study examined possible gender differences for relative upper
(elbow) to lower (knee) body strength and endurance in 7 women (mean age
24 years) and 9 men (mean age 26 years) who were matched for both upper-and
lower-body aerobic power. Subjects were tested on an isokinetic strength
instrument. Data indicate that there were differences in absolute strength
between the genders, but strength per lean body weight, as well as upper
to lower body ratios for strength and endurance, were similar for both genders.
KEYWORDS: Body weight
Finkenberg, M. E., DiNucci, J. M., McCune, S. L., & McCune, E. D.
(1993). Body esteem and enrollment in classes with different levels
if physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(3), 783-792.
KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Physical activity
Flippin, R. (1993). How exercise works. Self., 15(1), 76.
ABSTRACT: The elements of fitness. Step by step, we show what happens to
your body when you're getting in shape.
KEYWORDS: Exercise; Body
Ford, H. T., Puckett, J. R., & Blessing, D. L. (1989). Effects
of selected physical activities on health-related fitness and psychological
well-being. Psychological Reports, 64(1), 203-208.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of eight weeks of participation
in an activity courses (jogging, swimming, aerobic dance, weight training
or life-saving) on scores of self-concept, body cathexis, and four items
of health-related fitness, among 108 female college students. None of the
activity groups differed from the controls (20 students) in self-esteem,
body cathexis, body fat, or the step test scores at posttest.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Physical activities; Psychological well-being
Fox, K. R. (1987). Physical self-perceptions and exercise involvement.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception
Garofoli, E. (1990). The influence of a walking program on the
body cathexis and self-esteem of adult sedentary women. Unpublished
master's thesis, Springfield College.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body cathexis; Self-esteem; Exercise for women
Gysin, O. J. (1990). Effects of a weight training conditioning
program on the self-concepts of selected male students. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 50(07), 3204B, University of Northern Colorado.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to assess the degree to which a ten-week
anaerobic physical fitness program in weight training would affect the self-esteem
and physical self-concepts of college males. The experimental group consisted
of 51 male undergraduates recruited from five sections of a weight training
course. The control group consisted of 37 male undergraduates recruited
from the Principles of Psychology classes. Results indicated that the experimental
and control groups were not significantly different on either of the two
self-esteem scales. Results revealed that experiment participants who had
not been previously involved in a weight training program showed a significant
increase in self-esteem and a significant lower initial self-esteem compared
to their previously involved counterparts. These results were interpreted
as indicating that prior involvement in a weight training conditioning program
is a moderator variable which influences self-esteem gains that may occur
in the context of such a physical fitness program.
Harris-dawson, L. (1992). The relationship between fitness and
attendance in school, academic achievement and self-esteem. EDD, United
States international university.
ABSTRACT: The problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship
between physical fitness and attendance in school academic achievement,
and self-esteem in seventh grade middle school students. ... (abridged
KEYWORDS: Fitness; Self-esteem; Attendance; Academic achievement
Hawkins, D. L. (1981). The effect of exercise on self-esteem and
body image. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(05), 2031A, University
KEYWORDS: The study investigated whether female participants' body image
and self-esteem could be enhanced by engaging in a physical exercise program.
The exercise program used in this study was a combination of walking/jogging
and body development designed to promote change in the participants' feelings
and perception of their bodies. Results found (1) a significant and positive
correlation between body image and self-esteem, (2) the physical exercise
program created positive and significant change in self-esteem and body
image over time, (3) the physical exercise program did not significantly
improve physical measures.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-esteem
Hayes, D., & Ross, C. E. (1986). Body and mind: The effect of
exercise, overweight, and physical health on psychological well-being. Journal
of Health and Social Behavior, 27(4), 387-400.
KEYWORDS: The study examined the effects of exercise, overweight, and physical
health on psychological well-being in a telephone survey of 401 subjects
aged 18-83 years selected at random. Findings indicate that exercise affected
psychological well-being for low and middle income groups, and, to a lesser
degree, for high income groups. Results also show that good physical health
improved psychological well-being.
KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise; Physical health
Hensley, S. L. (1995). Effects of aerobic exercise on state and
trait body image and physical fitness among college women. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, Old Dominion University, Norfolk.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Aerobic exercise; Physical fitness; Self-acceptance
Holmes, T., Chamberlin, P., & Young, M. (1994). Relations of
exercise to body image and sexual desirability among a sample of university
students. Psychological Reports, 74(3, Pt 1), 920.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body image
Imm, P., & Pruitt, J. (1991). Body shape satisfaction in female
exercisers and nonexercisers. Woman and Health, 17(4), 87-96.
ABSTRACT: A total of 28 high frequency exercisers, 26 moderate frequency
exercisers, and 20 nonexercisers was recruited to examine the relationship
between exercise and body shape satisfaction in average body weight women.
The high frequency exercisers had a significantly more negative view of
their body shape than a group of moderate exercisers and nonexercisers.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Body weight; Body shape
Irvine, J. S. (1984). The effect of aerobic training and weight
training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body cathexis, and self-concept of
college females. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(04), 1324B,
Western Michigan University.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effects of two differing exercise programs,
aerobic training and weight training, upon the body cathexis, global self-concept,
and cardiorespiratory non-intercollegiate athletes who self-selected into
four different physical education classes that served as the two experimental
and one control group. Significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness
levels were found for the aerobic training group. No significant improvements
in self-concept of body cathexis was found between subjects' scores on the
Secord Jourard Body Cathexis Scale and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale.
It was suggested that mere participation in physical training programs is
inadequate to produce significant psychological benefits.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight training
Iverson, S. (1989). The effects of a twelve week exercise program
on fitness levels and blood glucose of type II diabetics and overweight
individuals. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nevada, Las
ABSTRACT: The study compared body composition, cardiovascular capacity,
flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and blood glucose of type
II diabetics to overweight, nondiabetics participating in a 12 week endurance
training program. The "Y's Way to Physical Fitness" battery of
tests was used throughout. Blood glucose was measured with a portable meter
using a finger prick and sterile, disposable lancet. Weight, percent body
fat, resting heart rate, flexibility, one-minute recovery heart rate, bench
press, sit-ups, VO2 max, and PWC max were analyzed to determine if there
were significant differences in fitness after training.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Exercise program; Diabetics
Jackson, G. E. (1991). The effects of an exercise training program
on the upper body muscular strength levels of elderly Blacks. Unpublished
master's thesis, Howard University.
KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise training; Elderly
Joesting, J. (1981). Comparison on students who exercise with those
who do not. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53(2), 426.
ABSTRACT: A total of 66 college students completed Body-Cathexis and Self-Cathexis
Scales and indicated how many hours of physical activity they participated
in each week. Subjects who reported five hours per week or more of physical
activity had a higher self-concept and view of their bodies than those who
exercised less than five hours per week.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Exercise
Johanson, W. L. (1990). Changes in body image as a result of participation
in an exercise based fat reduction program. Unpublished master's thesis,
University of The Pacific.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Physical fitness
Johnston, C. A. (1988). The relationship between self-esteem,
exercise and body type acceptance in women. Unpublished master's thesis,
California State University, Hayward.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Somatotypes
Karteroliotis, C. (1991). The relationship between physical self-perceptions
and fitness achievement: A structural equation analysis. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 53(03), 753A, The University of Iowa.
ABSTRACT: The study examines the longitudinal evidence of causal relationships
among global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, and fitness achievement
and employed a model which estimated the cross -lagged structural effects
among these three constructs at two time points. A sample of 282 college
students from two midwestern universities were recruited to assess Rosenberg's
Self-Esteem Scale, Fox and Corbin's Self-Perception Scale and three health-related
fitness tests. Results indicated that fitness achievement, physical self-perceptions,
and general self-esteem remained stable from Time 1 to Time 2. No evidence
of causal relationships among these three constructs over time. The importance
of estimating and removing the effects of correlated measurement errors
as well as the effects of residual errors when testing longitudinal causal
models. Findings emphasized the advantages of using longitudinal structural
equation models for testing complex causal relationships within the sport
and exercise psychology area.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-esteem; Physical fitness
Keller, B. A. (1989). The influence of body size variables on
gender differences in strength and maximum aerobic capacity. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the influence of body mass (Mb), lean body
mass (LBM), and physical activity status on gender differences in strength
and maximum aerobic capacity. Sedentary (S) and endurance trained (T) males
and females were matched for Mb and LBM. Results indicate that physical
activity status did not influence significantly gender differences in strength
and maximum aerobic capacity.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Gender differences
Kenny, J. (1985). Selected physiological changes in males and
females after three months of variable resistance training and circuit weight
training (nautilus, strength, supervised exercise, oxygen consumption).
EDD, State university of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated changes in cardiovascular endurance, muscle
strength and endurance, flexibility and body far in males and females after
three months of circuit weight training and variable resistance training.
KEYWORDS: Exercise; Men; Women
Kirschenbaum, D. (1995, June). Exercise on exercise. CBA Record,
ABSTRACT: Exercise your brainwaves to develop a learner, healthier body.
KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise
Kraslin, H. (1989). A comparative study of three weight loss programs:
Physical exercise, psychoeducation, and combined physical exercise/psychoeducation.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(07), 1988A, Clark University.
ABSTRACT: The study examines the relative effectiveness of three weight
loss programs (Physical Exercise, Psychoeducation, and Combined Physical
Exercise/Psychoeducation) among 142 overweight subjects. Program effects
were measured by changes in Total Skinfold Measure (TSM), Percentage Ideal
Body Weight (PIBW), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the end of a
13-week treatment period and a 13-week follow-up. The results show a significant
weight loss (TSM and PIBW) and decrease in depression (BDI). There were
no significant differences among treatment groups. The influence of subject
characteristics (gender, age, expected weight loss, attendance, and homework
compliance) on TSM, PIBW, and BDI yielded no significant differences, although
trends in predicted directions were apparent.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Weight loss program; Physical exercise
Leon, G. R. (1984). Anorexia nervosa and sports activities. Behavior
Therapist, 7(1), 9-10.
ABSTRACT: The study proposed that the athlete involved in rigorous training
who also restricts food intake in order to maintain a low body weight adaptive
for a particular sports activity often may be indistinguishable from an
eating-disordered person who, for psychopathological reasons, engages in
athletics to achieve and maintain an excessively low body weight. The study
suggested that educators, therapists, and others should be sensitive to
the possibility that some athletes may be at risk for the development of
eating disorders as a result of a variety of pressures for an exceedingly
thin physical appearance.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Anorexia nervosa; Sports
Leutholtz, B. (1991). The effects of exercise training and severe
caloric restriction on lean-body mass in the obese. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Michigan State University.
ABSTRACT: The study investigates the effects of exercise intensity on the
body composition of obese subjects during severe caloric restriction. Subjects
were 40 obese subjects who were randomized into groups that exercised at
40% and 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR). No significant differences
in body weight, body fat or lean weight were observed between the two groups.
The study suggests that exercising at 60% of the HRR offers no advantages
for body composition changes over those obtained from exercising at 40%
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Exercise training; Lean-body mass; Obesity
Lucas, J. (1994). The effects of a strength training program on
the body image, self-concept, and dynamic strength of seventh grade girls.
Unpublished master's thesis, Brigham Young University.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image ; Self-perception; Teenage girls
McAuley, E., Bane, S. M. N., Rudolph, D. L., & Lox, C. L. (1995).
Physique anxiety and exercise in middle-aged adults. Journals of Gerontology:
Series B - Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 50B(5), 229-235.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationships among body composition (BC),
exercise participation, physique anxiety (PA) in a sample of middle-aged
(45-64 yrs), formerly sedentary males and females. Analyses revealed females
and those subjects 45-54 years old to be significantly more physique-anxious
than their older counterparts. Results also indicated that being female
and failing to reduce hip circumference were significantly related to post
KEYWORDS: Body composition; Body image; Body weight
McAuley, E., Bane, S. M., & Mihalko, S. L. (1995). Exercise in
middle-aged adults: Self-efficacy and self-presentational outcomes. Preventative
Medicine-An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 24(4),
ABSTRACT: The study recruited 56 male and 58 female formerly sedentary adults
(aged 45-64 years) who were participated in a 5-month exercise program with
assessments of physique anxiety, efficacy, outcome expectations, and anthropometric
variables prior to and following the program. The study found that acute
bouts and long-term participation in exercise resulted in increases in self-efficacy.
These changes in efficacy and initial positive outcome expectations were
significant predictors of reductions in physique anxiety, even when controlling
for the influence of gender and reductions in body fat, weight, and circumferences.
KEYWORDS: Body; Self-efficacy; Body image
McDonald, K., & Thompson, J. K. (1992). Eating disturbance, body
image dissatisfaction, and reasons for exercising: Gender differences and
correlational findings. International Journal of Eating Disorders,
ABSTRACT: Samples of 100 physically active males and 91 physically active
females (17-35 years old) were assessed for eating disturbance, body dissatisfaction,
self-esteem, and reasons for engaging in exercise. Results indicate that
women's motivation for exercise was more often related weight and tone reasons
than that of men. For both genders, exercising for weight, tone, and attractiveness
reasons was highly correlated with other measures of disturbance. Exercising
because of health was associated positively with self-esteem for both sexes.
Exercising for fitness was related to lower levels of eating disturbance
and higher self-esteem for men. Overall activity level was related to greater
eating disturbance for women, but less body dissatisfaction for men.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Exercise; Eating disturbance
Melnick, M. J., & Moorkerjee, S. (1991). Effects of advanced
weight training on body cathexis and self-esteem. Perceptual and Motor
Skills, 73(2), 1335.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-esteem
Meyer, N. (1986). The effects of ten weeks of strength and flexibility
training on the strength, flexibility, body circumferences, and self-perceptions
of middle and late middle aged women. Dissertation Abstracts International,
47(12), 4319A, University of Northern Colorado.
ABSTRACT: A sample of 31 untrained women (40-59 years), were trained 3 times
a week for ten weeks for strength and flexibility using Nautilus machines
and static stretching. The variables tested included shoulder strength,
flexibility, body cathexis, global self-worth, and hip circumference. Significance
differences were found for the total group between pretest and posttest
in body cathexis, global self-worth, and shoulder strength. Age did not
significantly affect the degree of improvement in any of the variables.
Significant differences were also found between the previously aerobically
active and inactive groups on posttest means for hip circumference and global
self-worth. Lack of prior aerobic activity had a significant training impact
on hip circumference decreases and global self-worth improvement. A prior
history of aerobic activity participation did not give the active women
an advantage on the shoulder strength pretest, posttest, or adjusted posttest
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body circumference; Self-perceptions
Meyers, A., Stunkard, A., Coll, M., Cooke, C. (1980). Stairs, escalators,
and obesity. Behavior Modification, 4(3), 355-359.
ABSTRACT: Examined the activity of 3217 obese and nonobese individuals in
4 public settings: a bus station, shopping mall, commuter railroad station,
and an airport. Body type was determined using profiles of Sheldon's somatotypes.
Results indicate that body weight was significantly related to activity
choice, with obese Ss choosing escalators over stairs more frequently that
overweight of normal weight.
KEYWORDS: Body type; Body weight
Milano, S. (1994, March). Fit for success. Entrepreneur, 22,
ABSTRACT: Physical health has a lot to do with fiscal health. A discussion
on how to bring your body and your business, up to par.
KEYWORDS: Body; Fit
Moore, K. A. (1993). The effect of exercise on body image, self-esteem
and mood. Mental Health in Australia, 5(1), 38-40.
ABSTRACT: The study employed 189 female Australian college students, 153
of whom were regular exercisers, to complete a battery of questionnaires
designed to measure self-esteem, coping styles, mood states, and quality
of life. Instruments included the Profile of Mood States and the Levenson
Locus of Control Scales. There were no differences between exercisers and
nonexercisers in terms of locus of control, coping strategies, or self-esteem.
Exercisers reported a higher quality of life, better mood states, higher
concentration, and less confusion.
KEYWORDS: Body; Self-esteem; Body image; Exercise
Muller, S. M. (1993). The effects of exercise induced changes
on self esteem. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland,
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-esteem; Exercise
Muntzing, E. (1980). The effect of two training loads on specified
fitness parameters in sedentary adult women: Ages 20-30, 31-40, and over
41. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(06), 2499A, Brigham Young
ABSTRACT: The study assessed the effect of two different training loads
on specified fitness parameters in sedentary women. Subjects consisted of
29 sedentary women and were divided into 3 age groups: 9 subjects from 20-30,
10 subjects from 31-40, and 10 subjects from over 41. The results indicated
that (1) the adaptation of fitness variables to endurance exercise is independent
of age in sedentary women, (2) exercise involving expenditure of 150 Kcal
and 300 Kcal produce similar effects on fitness parameters in sedentary
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Fitness
Myerson, M. L. (1991). Etiology of athletic menstrual dysfunction.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(03), 1278B, Columbia University
ABSTRACT: Many factors have been associated with menstrual dysfunction (AMD)
including age, training regimen, and body fat. Recent studies have shown
that although body fat is similar in amenorrheic (A) and eumenorrheic (E)
athletes, the A tend to have a diet which lacks the quantity and quality
of the E athletes. In the first part of the study, AMD I, A and E were similar
in body fat determined by hydrodensitometry (HD) and in other physical and
training characteristics. The caloric intake was lower in the A and they
scored significantly higher on a scale of aberrant eating patterns. In AMD
II, results indicate that body fat did not differ significantly in A and
E runners, suggesting that nutritional and metabolic factors were more important
in the etiology of AMD.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Menstrual dysfunction
Nelson, J. K. (1982). The function of age, gender, and body size
characteristics on physical fitness performance. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 43(07), 2276A, University of Houston Campus.
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to examine the AAHPERD test. The purpose
of the study was to answer two major questions: was physical fitness a function
of gender? If so, could these gender differences be explained by age and
body size characteristics? The sample group was 12,362 boys and girls, ages
6 through 17, throughout the US The performance of boys was superior to
girls on the mile run and sit-up tests, while girls out-performed boys on
the sit and reach test. When controlling for age in combination with height
and weight or body mass index, significant gender differences still remained.
This showed that body size characteristics did not explain the gender test
differences. Although age and body size characteristics were found to be
related to test performance on all test items, they did not explain the
gender variation in these tests.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Physical fitness
Netz, Y., Tennenbaum, G., & Sagiv, M. (1988). Pattern of psychological
fitness as related to pattern of physical fitness among older adults. Perceptual
and Motor Skills, 67(2), 647-655.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated psychological and physical fitness among
eleven men (56-64 years) and thirteen women (50-60 years) before, during,
and after a 12-week physical activity program. Results show improvement
of fitness was gradual and significant for both sexes, whereas, no effects
of time or sex were found. Differences in patterns of change between women
and men on well-being confirm previous findings that indicate women report
more depression and less satisfaction than men and are more sensitive to
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Physical fitness; Psychological fitness
O'Donoghue, R. K. (1989). A causal analysis of the interrelationship
among physical fitness, body esteem, perception of fitness and self-concept
for female participants of noncompetitive sport. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Southern California.
ABSTRACT: The study tested existing theory concerning the effects of fitness
on self-concept for females. An extension to existing theory was suggested
and tested in the form of a revised model. This model states that the effects
of fitness on self-concept is mediated by perception of fitness and body
esteem. A total of 58 females were tested on measures of fitness, self-concept,
body esteem, and perception of fitness. The results suggested that the effects
of fitness on self-concept are mediated by perception of fitness and body
esteem. Fitness may not have a direct effect on females' self-concepts,
but the effects are better seen in subjects' perception of fitness and levels
of body esteem.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body esteem; Physical fitness
Peraglie, C. B. (1991). The impact of anaerobic and aerobic exercise
during caloric restriction upon the composition of body mass loss and energy
expenditure in overweight males. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Texas Woman's University.
ABSTRACT: The impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise during caloric restriction
and caloric restriction alone was investigated in 30 overweight males. Subjects
were randomly distributed in 3 groups: anaerobic exercise plus diet, aerobic
exercise plus diet, and diet only. There was no significant difference between
these groups when weight loss was analyzed, but a significant decrease within
each group occurred. The type of exercise (anaerobic versus aerobic) which
accompanies caloric restriction can be one which is individualized by the
clinician to the dieter's preference.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body mass; Aerobic exercise
Pollock, M. (1974). Follow up study on the effects of conditioning
four days per week on the physical fitness of adult men. American Corrective
Therapy Journal, Sept. - Oct., 135-139.
ABSTRACT: Investigated the importance of frequency of training for improving
the cardiovascular function and body composition of middle-aged men. Nine
healthy, sedentary male Ss, aged 28 - 47, volunteered to exercise 30 min./day,
4 times/week for 20 weeks. Initial testing was preceded by 3 orientation
sessions. subsequent tests were administered after 10 and 20 weeks of training.
All tests were administered in the post-absorptive state before 10:00 AM.
The conditioning program was conducted at 90-95% of maximum heart rate and
consisted of walking, jogging, and running. Results show the 4 day/week
program resulted in significant improvement and was related both to intensity
of work and to total expenditure of energy. Thus for the same frequency
of conditioning, increasing the duration may offset a lowering of the intensity
KEYWORDS: Physical fitness; Males
Rainey, D. (1997). Foundations of personal fitness. Minneapolis:
West Pub Company.
ABSTRACT: The book discusses the foundations of physical fitness, the benefits
of regular exercise, the advantages of weight training, and proper nutrition.
KEYWORDS: Body; Fit; Personal fitness
Reeder, E. N. (1977). Clothing preferences of male athletes in
relation to self-concept, athletic ability, race, socioeconomic status,
and peer perception. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept; Clothing preferences; Male athletes
Renfrow, N., Bolton, B. (1979). Personality characteristics associated
with aerobic exercise in adult males. Journal of Personality Assessment,
43(3), 261 - 266.
ABSTRACT: Used an index of aerobic conditioning, 23 adult males exercisers
and 23 nonexercisers (29 - 70 years old faculty members). During individual
interviews with each S, basic demographic data were obtained, and blood
pressure, vital capacity, resting pulse rate and body fat were measured.
All Ss completed form A of the 16 PF. Statistically significant differences
occurred on 6 primary factors and 4 secondary dimensions of the 16 PF. In
comparison to the inactive Ss the exercisers, all of whom were joggers or
runners, were more reserved, expedient, suspicious, forthright, liberal,
and self-sufficient on the primary traits, and were more alert and independent,
less discreet, and evidenced lower super-ego strengthen the broader secondary
patterns. The significant training effects were lower pulse rate and less
body fat but not lower blood pressure.
KEYWORDS: Personality; Aerobic exercise; Adult males
Riddick, C. C., & Freitag, R. S. (1984). The impact of an aerobic
fitness program on the body image of older women. Activities, Adaptation,
and Aging, 6(1), 59-70.
ABSTRACT: The study tested somatopsychic theory by investigating the relationship
between participation in a fitness program and the self-perceived body image
(BI) of older female adults among six female adult participants aged 50-70
years. Results support the somatopsychic theory, suggesting that efforts
directed at developing a fit body have spillover effects on other aspects
of an older woman's personality, specifically perceived body image.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Elderly
Sakuma, S. M. (1990). Fat or fit: Is there a correlation.
Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College.
ABSTRACT: Subjects include: body composition, physical fitness, army weight
KEYWORDS: Body weight
Salusso-Deonier, C. J., & Schwarzkopf, R. J. (1991). Sex differences
in body cathexis associated with exercise involvement. Perceptual and
Motor Skills, 73(1), 139.
ABSTRACT: The study examined sex differences in body cathexis (BCX) for
two groups: (a) 52 female and 23 male students from a university fitness
improvement class, and (b) a comparison groups of 41 female and nine male
students from classes unrelated to exercise, by asking the subjects to complete
Body Cathexis Scale. Multivariate analysis of post-study data yielded a
significant effect for the exercise involvement of fitness class men and
women. Regular exercise seems to have potential as a method for improving
BCX for both men and women.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Exercise involvement
Santiago, M. C. (1990). Effects of a forty-week walking program
of twelve miles per week on physical fitness, body composition, and blood
lipids and lipoproteins in sedentary women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Minnesota.
ABSTRACT: Previously sedentary women (n=16) were randomly assigned to a
walking or non-exercise control group (n=11) for the 40-week period. Patterns
of change were noted in body constitution for both walking and control groups
as indicated by decreases in body weight, body mass index, sum of skinfolds,
and fat weight for walkers and increases in body weight, body mass index,
and sums of skinfolds for controls. There were no significant changes in
levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, or high
density lipoprotein or its subfractions over the 40-week period. These data
suggest that a long term, 12 mile per week walking program, in sedentary
women, substantially increases cardiorespiratory fitness and decreases body
fat. In contrast, long-term periods of physical inactivity results in an
increase in body fat. This study also demonstrates that walking can reverse
declines in high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with progressive
increases in fatness related to physical inactivity.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body composition; Walking program
Schaberg, G. S. (1986). Effects of aerobic and weight training
exercise on the body composition of pre and postmenopausal women. Unpublished
master's thesis, University of Texas, Tyler.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body composition; Weight training exercise
Schlamowitz, K. E. (1984). Body building: Masculine protest or
the expression of a normal personality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
The University of Arizona.
ABSTRACT: A sample of 37 competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, along
with 20 weight-training comparison subjects were evaluated with respect
to their personality characteristics, sex-role identity, and degree of body
satisfaction. The study suggests that competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders,
as well as men who incorporate weight-training into an exercise routine,
demonstrate no remarkable or pathological personality characteristics. Neither
do they differ significantly from the average population in terms of sex-role
identification or the degree to which they are satisfied with their bodies.
KEYWORDS: Body weight
Seggar, J. F., McCammon, D. L., & Cannon, L. D. (1988). Relations
between physical activity, weight discrepancies, body cathexis, and psychological
well-being in college women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(2),
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the relations between physical activity,
weight discrepancies, body cathexis, and indicators of psychological well-being
in 323 college women. Analyses showed that physical activity was not directly
related to psychological well-being. However, physical activity reduced
weight discrepancies and improved body cathexis. Results also indicate that
there were distinctive patterns of satisfaction with body parts and processes
depending on whether the subjects' body types conformed to or deviated from
idealized weights and heights.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body cathexis; Psychological well-being
Skrinar, G. S., Bullen, B. A., Cheek, J. M., & McArthur, J. W.
(1986). Effects of endurance training on body-consciousness in women. Perceptual
and Motor Skills, 62(2), 483-490.
ABSTRACT: The Body Consciousness Questionnaire was employed to assess the
effects of intensive endurance training on changes in self-perception in
thirteen women volunteers aged 20-30 years. Results suggest that endurance
and moderate exercise training contribute to increased self-perception specifically
with regard to perceived internal consciousness and body competence.
KEYWORDS: Body consciousness; Exercise
Sonstroem, R. J., Harlow, L. L., & Josephs, L. (1994). Exercise
and self-esteem: Validity of model expansion and exercise associations.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 29-42.
ABSTRACT: The research examined the validity of expanding the Exercise and
Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) developed by R.J. Sonstroem and W.P. Morgan in
216 female aerobic dancers. This research was designed to include two levels
of perceived physical competence as operationalized by the Physical Self-Perception
Profile (PSPP). A self-esteem scale was administered along with the PSPP
to assess general physical self-worth, and more specific subdomains of perceived
sport competence, physical condition, attractive body, and strength.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-perception; Physical fitness; Self-efficacy
Swan, P. D. (1991). The effects of body fat distribution on metabolism
at rest and during exercise in women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
The University of Tennessee.
ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed to examine metabolic differences
at rest and in response to exercise between two groups of obese women distinctly
characterized by their body fat locations. Subjects were 21 overfat women
(18-40 years) with normal health and blood lipid profiles, who were participated
in a resting metabolic rate (RMR) test, two mechanical efficiency (ME) tests
(cycle and treadmill), and a prolonged walking (PW) test to assess fuel
utilization. No differences were found in the amount of rate fuel utilized
as fat during PW between groups. The results indicate obese women with different
body fat distribution patterns have similar physiological potentials for
energy expenditure. Both groups showed equal capabilities for performing
prolonged exercise with the typical metabolic shift in fuel utilization.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body fat distribution
Tarkan, L. (1994, February 22). Custom fitness: The plan that works.
Family Circle, 107, 84.
ABSTRACT: Quiz for body type; drop a size with a personalized three-part
KEYWORDS: Body type
Tucker, L. A. (1982). Effect of a weight-training program on the
self-concepts of college males. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54(3,
Pt 2), 1055-1061.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of a weight-training program
on the self-concepts of 105 subjects. Investigating whether or not success
in lifting program affected self-concepts. Significant differences between
groups were found on five of the nine self-concept measures, including the
Total Positive Score. This supported the hypothesis that regular weight-training
positively influences self-concept.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight-training
Tucker, L. A. (1983). Effect of weight training on self-concept:
A profile of those influenced most. Research Quarterly for Exercise Sport,
ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study was (1) to examine the effect of weight
training on the self-concepts of 240 college males, (2) to identify the
types of males, relative to measures of extroversion, neuroticism, body
cathexis, somatotype, and muscular strength, who experience the most improvement
in self-concept during a lifting program. Results reveal significant post-test
differences in global, internal, and external self-concept between the groups,
confirming the hypothesis that regular weight training is positively associated
with the improvement of self-concept. Changes in neuroticism, body cathexis,
and muscular strength scores were significant predictors of self-concept
change, indicating that the positive association between weight training
and self-concept enhancement is mutivariately determined, and that some
types of males experience more improvement of self-concept than others during
a weight-training regime.
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight training
Tucker, L. A., & Maxwell, K. (1992). Effects of weight training
on the emotional well-being and body image of females: Predictors of greatest
benefit. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6(5), 338-344.
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine the extent to which participant
in a weight training program was associated with changes in body cathexis
and emotional well-being, as well as the extent to which psychological factors
affected these changes. An experimental group (EG) of 60 female university
students who participated in a 15-wk weight-training intervention and in
a physical exercise program 3 days/wk along with a control group (CG) of
92 women were recruited to assess the General Well-Being Schedule and the
Body Cathexis Scale. The EG showed greater improvements in emotional well-being
and body image relative to the CG. Weight training was associated with psychological
KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Weight training
Vedder, M. J. (1985). Sound body, sound mind: The influence of
fitness training on self-esteem, perceived fitness and favorable/unfavorable
cognitions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill.
ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to examine the relationship between cardiovascular
fitness and self-esteem. Undergraduate students at Southern Illinois University,
participated in a 15-week Exercise and Fitness Class treatment, were assessed
4 times on cardiovascular fitness, self-esteem, perceived fitness and thought-listing;
a control group was concurrently assessed for self-esteem and thought-listing.
The results do not support the hypotheses that self-esteem and cardiovascular
fitness are related, that self-esteem and cognitions are related, or that
there exists a cognitively mediated link between physical fitness and psychological
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-esteem; Fitness training
Voorrips, L. E., Meijers, J. H. H., Sol, P., Seidell, J. C., & Staveren,
W. A. V. (1992). History of body weight and physical activity of elderly
women differing in current physical activity. International Journal of
Obesity, 16(3), 199-205.
ABSTRACT: Development of overweight and physical activity during life was
studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary
elderly women. Information was collected on each womens' situation at ages
12, 25, 40, and 55 years. Classification of obesity was checked by old photographs
rated by interviewers, sizes of clothing, and recalled body weight and height.
Weight index was statistically significant between the active and sedentary
group from age 25 onwards. Photographs proved to be useful for a valid and
KEYWORDS: Body size
Wynne, M. A. (1990). The psychological contributions of physical
activity to middle-aged woman. Dissertation Abstracts International,
50(12), 3890A, The Ohio State University.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the transitional years of middle-age and the
potential for physical activity to make valuable contributions to women
during this stage. Data was collected from 30 women (40-55 years) through
an in-depth interview, the guide for which was designed by the researcher
after review of the literature and a pilot study with four women. Findings
indicated that the middle years are years of transition, which may provide
both an opportunity for growth and for decline. Physical activity is one
area that has a great deal to offer this segment of the population.
KEYWORDS: Physical activity
Yotides, E. (1995). Weight regulation in male and female collegiate
athletes: The relationship between knowledge, attitude and behavior.
Unpublished master's thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; College athletes; Health and hygiene