Fitness has been embraced by Americans as the key to health and physical attractiveness. Exercise and dieting are often considered components of physical fitness.

Adame, D. D., Johnson, T. C., & Cole, S. P. (1990). Physical fitness in relation to amount of physical exercise, body image, and locus of control among college men and women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(3, Pt 2), 1347-1350.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed the level of exercise in 123 male and 120 female college freshmen to investigate the relationship of 4 variables to physical fitness: (1) amount of exercise, (2) the physical fitness dimension of body image, (3) locus of control, (4) gender. Findings show that there was a significant interaction between gender and amount of exercise. However, more men than women engaged in 5+ hrs/week of exercise. Subjects with an internal locus of control and a good body image were more fit than externally oriented subjects and subjects with poor body image, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Body; Physical fitness; Body image

Anonymous. (1995, July). Sports: Body, mind, and spirit. The Leatherneck, 78, 38.



Armstrong, J. E., Lange, E., & Mishra, S. (1992). Reported exercise practices and self-image of adult male and female recreational exercisers. Family and Community Health, 14(4), 20-28.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the extent to which selected measures of self-image account for differences in exercise frequency and satisfaction with physical fitness among 930 male (47%) and female (53%) recreational exercisers (aged 20-80 years). Results indicate that perceived need to lose weight was widespread and may be an important motivation to exercise, particularly among women. A variation in satisfaction with physical fitness among subgroups (sex, age, body weight, and exercise frequency) implies that more research can be done to determine how exercisers differ in their exercise and fitness expectations and self-assessment.

KEYWORDS: Body; Self-image; Physical fitness

Belling, L. R. (1992). The relationship between social physique anxiety and physical activity. Unpublished master's thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.


KEYWORDS: Body; Physical activity; Body image; Exercise

Benzel, N. B. (1994). The relationship between physical activity and self-efficacy in older adults. Unpublished master's thesis, University of North Carolina, Greensboro.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-efficacy

Bertherat, T. (1979). The body has its reasons: Anti-exercise and self-awareness. New York: Avon Books.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise

Bolton, B., Renfrow, N. (1979). Personality characteristics associated with aerobic exercise in adult females. Journal of personality assessment, 43(5), 504-508.

ABSTRACT: Using an index of aerobic conditioning, 27 adult females joggers and 25 nonexercisers were identifies. During individual interviews basic demographic data were obtained, and blood pressure, vital capacity, resting pulse rate and body fat were measured. All Ss completed form A of the 16 PF. Significant differences occurred on 2 primary factors and 1 secondary dimension of the 16 PF. The probability of 3 marginal significant differences out of 24 comparisons is well within the range of expected chance fluctuation. Thus, data provide no evidence that personality characteristics are predisposing factors in the adoption of an aerobic jogging program by young adult female. The only significant training effect was lower pulse rate. Results are compared to those of a previous investigation of male joggers.

KEYWORDS: Personality; Aerobic exercise; Adult females

Bothwell, J. H. (1988). The effects of an aerobic exercise program on self-concept, health locus-of-control, and health-related behaviors of Zuni Indians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Fielding Institute.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine (1) the effects of participation in an aerobics exercise program on the variables of self-concept, health locus of control, and health-related behaviors of Zuni Indians, (2) significant differences between exercisers and decliners on these variables. Subjects were 43 women and 6 men who enrolled in a 12-week aerobic dance program. Weight loss was found to be a factor in only two of the six significant scores, supporting the hypothesis that exercise made a significant impact on the self-concept of finishers, regardless of weight lost.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-concept

Brown, S. W. (1991). Aerobic exercise in the Psychological treatment of adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Alabama.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of aerobic exercise in a population of clinically diagnosed adolescents. Dependent physical measures of height, weight, body mass index, and skinfolds, physiological measures of resting, exercise, and recovery heart rates, together with psychological measures of depression, anxiety, mood states, self-esteem, and self-efficacy were assessed pre, mid, and post 9-week treatment and at 4-week follow-up. Improvements on measures of recovery heart rate, depression, anxiety, hostility, confused thinking, and fatigue were shown in females in the treatment group, with increases in vigor and self-efficacy for both males and females in the treatment group.

KEYWORDS: Aerobic exercise; Psychological treatment; Adolescents

Bynum, S. P. (1995). Physical activity, body image, and depression in young female adults. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Rhode Island.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Depression

Carpenter, K. (1989). The effects of physical activity on body satisfaction. Unpublished master's thesis, Appalachian State University.


KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body image

Carr, N. J. (1962). The effect of isometric contraction and progressive body conditioning exercises on selected of physical fitness and badminton achievement of college women. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Washington, Seattle.


KEYWORDS: Body; Isometric exercise; Physical fitness

Cash, T. F., Novy, P. L., & Grant, J. R. (1994). Why do women exercise: Factor analysis and further validation of the reasons for exercise inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(2), 539-544.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the factor structure and correlates of the Reasons for Exercise Inventory (REI) in 101 female university students who regularly exercise and asked them to complete the 24-item REI (with 1 added item), two standardized body-image measures, and to report their weekly frequency of exercise. Results indicated that fitness/health management, stress/mood management, and socializing appearance/weight management was associated with a more negative body image independent of actual body mass and was the only motive related to self-reported frequency of exercise.

KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise

Cocklin, J. C. (1989). The effects of physical fitness and body cathexis on self-concept change in women after aerobic conditioning. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(10), 4594B, Oklahoma State University.

ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study were (a) to examine the effects of participation in an aerobic dance class on self-concept, and (b) to determine if level of physical fitness and feelings about the body (body cathexis) were significantly related to self-concept change. Subjects were 69 women, aged 20-50 who were randomly assigned to experimental and placebo groups, who participated in exercise classes three nights per week for eight weeks. Results showed that body cathexis and physical fitness were not found to be significantly related to self-concept change according to the measures used. Findings supported the use of physical activity as a viable treatment modality for practitioners working with female clients exhibiting low self-esteem.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Physical fitness

Conger, P. R. (1964). Physical performance and body form as related to physical activity of college women. Unpublished master's thesis, Michigan State University.


KEYWORDS: Body form; Exercise

Couturier, L. E. (1986). Exercise as a predictor of body-cathexis and self-concept in pregnant women. Thesis (D.P.E), Springfield College.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Self-perception

Crawford, S. A. (1992). Social physique anxiety, body satisfaction, and exercise settings. Unpublished master's thesis, Auburn University.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the ways that social physique anxiety (SPA) was associated with exercise behaviors among 104 women. Weight satisfaction, body satisfaction, and reasons for exercise were measured. Subjects were asked to complete the Attitudes Toward Exercise Settings Questionnaire after watching two video presentations of aerobics classes in which one class wore attire emphasizing the physique and the other wore attire de-emphasizing the physique. Results indicated self-presentational reasons for exercising were positively associated with SPA. The study also found that SPA was associated with favorability of attitudes toward both exercise settings, but that SPA was negatively associated to the setting emphasizing physique and was positively related to the setting de-emphasizing physique. These associations suggest that SPA-associated perceptions may deter individuals from exercising in some settings.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Body image; Self-perception; Self-presentation

Crawford, S., & Eklund, R. C. (1994). Social physique anxiety, reasons for exercise, and attitudes toward exercise settings. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 70-82.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the ways that social physique anxiety (SPA) was associated with exercise behaviors among 104 women. Subjects completed measures of SPA, weight satisfaction, body satisfaction, and reasons for exercise. Subjects also completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise Settings Questionnaire after watching two videos aerobics. Findings indicated that SPA was associated with favorability of attitudes toward both exercise settings, but that SPA was negatively associated to the setting de-emphasizing physique. These associations suggest that SPA-associated perceptions may deter individuals from exercising in some settings.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Social physique anxiety

Curless, M. (1992). Exercise: the key to staying young. We chart the landscape of the active versus sedentary body in youth and beyond. Self., 14(9), 178.


KEYWORDS: Exercise

Darden, E. (1974). A comparison of body image and self-concept variables among various sport groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Self-concept

Davis, C., & Cowles, M. (1991). Body image and exercise: A study of relationships and comparisons between physically active men and women. Sex Roles, 25(1-2), 33-44.

ABSTRACT: Samples of 112 female (aged 14-58 years) and 88 male (aged 16-64 years) self-identified regular exercisers were compared on variables related to body image, weight and diet concerns, and degree of exercise participation. Findings indicated that women were more dissatisfied with their bodies and placed greater importance on their appearance as an influence on their feelings of well-being. Thus, women were more likely than men to exercise and to try and lose weight.

KEYWORDS: Body Satisfaction; Body image

Davis, C., Elliott, S., Dionne, M., & Mitchell, I. (1991). The relationship of personality factors and physical activity to body satisfaction in men. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(7), 689-694.

ABSTRACT: The study examined a battery of assessments given to 103 male university students and 88 males (aged 16-64 years) who engaged in recreational or assiduous exercise. It was found that neuroticism was a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction in both groups; however, it accounted for a substantially greater proportion of the variance among exercising men. Results also indicated that physical activity participation and body dissatisfaction were negatively related, although it is not clear whether exercise promoted body satisfaction or whether men who were satisfied with their appearance were likely to be physically active.

KEYWORDS: Body satisfaction; Physical activity

Davis, C., & Fox, J. (1993). Excessive exercise weight preoccupation in women. Addictive Behaviors, 18(2), 201-211.

ABSTRACT: The study sought to (1) investigate whether excessive exercisers have specific characteristics in common other than that they exercise a great deal, (2) identify the degree of relationship between exercising and weight preoccupation and the extent to which those classified as excessive on either dimension have psychological characteristics in common. The study assessed 351 adult women on several psychological, behavioral, and body composition measures including weight preoccupation and leisure-time physical activity participation. Excessive exercisers reported greater body satisfaction and body focus, were less emotionally reactive (neurotic), and more extroverted than nonexercisers.

KEYWORDS: Body awareness; Body weight; Body satisfaction; Body composition

Delignieres, D., Marcellini, A., Brisswalter, J., & Legros, P. (1994). Self-perception of fitness and personality traits. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(3, Pt 1), 843-851.

ABSTRACT: The study examined how middle-aged adults perceived their own physical fitness. Results indicated that self-appraisal of physical capacities was mainly influenced by a general attitude toward the physical self, and physical self-worth was related to self-esteem, anxiety, and masculinity.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Personality traits; Self-perception; Physical fitness

Enns, M. P., Drewnoski, A., & Grinker, J. A. (1987). Body composition, body size estimation, and attitudes towards eating in male college athletes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49(1), 56-64.

ABSTRACT: The study examined behaviors and attitudes related to food and body weight among 26 intercollegiate wrestlers and 21 intercollegiate swimmers and cross country skiers (all males aged 18-21 years). Findings indicate that wrestlers differed significantly from other athletes with regard to dieting behavior and fluctuations in body weight. The study concludes that wrestlers may represent a population at risk for the newly reported sports-induced disturbances in eating.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body composition; Body weight

Epstein, L. H. (1982). A comparison of lifestyle change and programmed aerobic exercise on weight and fitness changes in obese children. Behavior Therapy, 13(5), 651-665.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed the effects of lifestyle (LS) of programmed aerobic exercise (AE), with and without a diet, on weight, fitness, and exercise adherence with 37 obese children (8-12 years) over a 17-month period. The LS program allowed subjects to increase energy expenditure by engaging in a wide variety of daily games and activities, while the AE program required subjects to perform an aerobic exercise daily. Results show equivalent and relative weight changes across all groups during the 8-week intensive treatment, with LS subjects losing more additional weight and maintaining their weight loss better than the AE subject during maintenance and follow-up. Fitness changes, as measured by heart rate during exercise and recovery, improved more during intensive treatment for the AE than the LS groups.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Aerobic exercise; Obesity

Epstein, D. (1983). The psychological effects of an aerobic fitness program on normal adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Adelphi University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the psychological effects of an aerobic fitness program upon psychologically and anxiety, self-satisfaction, and body satisfaction. Subjects were 22 male and 23 female adults in each group, and were administered in a pre-post test design, with the experimental period being 16 weeks. No significant change from pre to post test were found as a function of group, nor was there a significant change as a function of the Group x Sex interaction.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Aerobic fitness program

Falkel, J. E., Sawka, M. N., & Levine, L. (1985). Upper to lower body muscular strength and endurance ratios for women and men. Ergonomics, 28(12), 1661-1670.

ABSTRACT: The study examined possible gender differences for relative upper (elbow) to lower (knee) body strength and endurance in 7 women (mean age 24 years) and 9 men (mean age 26 years) who were matched for both upper-and lower-body aerobic power. Subjects were tested on an isokinetic strength instrument. Data indicate that there were differences in absolute strength between the genders, but strength per lean body weight, as well as upper to lower body ratios for strength and endurance, were similar for both genders.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Finkenberg, M. E., DiNucci, J. M., McCune, S. L., & McCune, E. D. (1993). Body esteem and enrollment in classes with different levels if physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(3), 783-792.


KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Physical activity

Flippin, R. (1993). How exercise works. Self., 15(1), 76.

ABSTRACT: The elements of fitness. Step by step, we show what happens to your body when you're getting in shape.

KEYWORDS: Exercise; Body

Ford, H. T., Puckett, J. R., & Blessing, D. L. (1989). Effects of selected physical activities on health-related fitness and psychological well-being. Psychological Reports, 64(1), 203-208.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the effects of eight weeks of participation in an activity courses (jogging, swimming, aerobic dance, weight training or life-saving) on scores of self-concept, body cathexis, and four items of health-related fitness, among 108 female college students. None of the activity groups differed from the controls (20 students) in self-esteem, body cathexis, body fat, or the step test scores at posttest.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Physical activities; Psychological well-being

Fox, K. R. (1987). Physical self-perceptions and exercise involvement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception

Garofoli, E. (1990). The influence of a walking program on the body cathexis and self-esteem of adult sedentary women. Unpublished master's thesis, Springfield College.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body cathexis; Self-esteem; Exercise for women

Gysin, O. J. (1990). Effects of a weight training conditioning program on the self-concepts of selected male students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(07), 3204B, University of Northern Colorado.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to assess the degree to which a ten-week anaerobic physical fitness program in weight training would affect the self-esteem and physical self-concepts of college males. The experimental group consisted of 51 male undergraduates recruited from five sections of a weight training course. The control group consisted of 37 male undergraduates recruited from the Principles of Psychology classes. Results indicated that the experimental and control groups were not significantly different on either of the two self-esteem scales. Results revealed that experiment participants who had not been previously involved in a weight training program showed a significant increase in self-esteem and a significant lower initial self-esteem compared to their previously involved counterparts. These results were interpreted as indicating that prior involvement in a weight training conditioning program is a moderator variable which influences self-esteem gains that may occur in the context of such a physical fitness program.

KEYWORDS: Self-concepts

Harris-dawson, L. (1992). The relationship between fitness and attendance in school, academic achievement and self-esteem. EDD, United States international university.

ABSTRACT: The problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and attendance in school academic achievement, and self-esteem in seventh grade middle school students. ... (abridged

KEYWORDS: Fitness; Self-esteem; Attendance; Academic achievement

Hawkins, D. L. (1981). The effect of exercise on self-esteem and body image. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(05), 2031A, University of Georgia.

KEYWORDS: The study investigated whether female participants' body image and self-esteem could be enhanced by engaging in a physical exercise program. The exercise program used in this study was a combination of walking/jogging and body development designed to promote change in the participants' feelings and perception of their bodies. Results found (1) a significant and positive correlation between body image and self-esteem, (2) the physical exercise program created positive and significant change in self-esteem and body image over time, (3) the physical exercise program did not significantly improve physical measures.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-esteem

Hayes, D., & Ross, C. E. (1986). Body and mind: The effect of exercise, overweight, and physical health on psychological well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27(4), 387-400.

KEYWORDS: The study examined the effects of exercise, overweight, and physical health on psychological well-being in a telephone survey of 401 subjects aged 18-83 years selected at random. Findings indicate that exercise affected psychological well-being for low and middle income groups, and, to a lesser degree, for high income groups. Results also show that good physical health improved psychological well-being.

KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise; Physical health

Hensley, S. L. (1995). Effects of aerobic exercise on state and trait body image and physical fitness among college women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Old Dominion University, Norfolk.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Aerobic exercise; Physical fitness; Self-acceptance in adolescence

Holmes, T., Chamberlin, P., & Young, M. (1994). Relations of exercise to body image and sexual desirability among a sample of university students. Psychological Reports, 74(3, Pt 1), 920.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body image

Imm, P., & Pruitt, J. (1991). Body shape satisfaction in female exercisers and nonexercisers. Woman and Health, 17(4), 87-96.

ABSTRACT: A total of 28 high frequency exercisers, 26 moderate frequency exercisers, and 20 nonexercisers was recruited to examine the relationship between exercise and body shape satisfaction in average body weight women. The high frequency exercisers had a significantly more negative view of their body shape than a group of moderate exercisers and nonexercisers.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Body weight; Body shape

Irvine, J. S. (1984). The effect of aerobic training and weight training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body cathexis, and self-concept of college females. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(04), 1324B, Western Michigan University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effects of two differing exercise programs, aerobic training and weight training, upon the body cathexis, global self-concept, and cardiorespiratory non-intercollegiate athletes who self-selected into four different physical education classes that served as the two experimental and one control group. Significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness levels were found for the aerobic training group. No significant improvements in self-concept of body cathexis was found between subjects' scores on the Secord Jourard Body Cathexis Scale and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. It was suggested that mere participation in physical training programs is inadequate to produce significant psychological benefits.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight training

Iverson, S. (1989). The effects of a twelve week exercise program on fitness levels and blood glucose of type II diabetics and overweight individuals. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

ABSTRACT: The study compared body composition, cardiovascular capacity, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and blood glucose of type II diabetics to overweight, nondiabetics participating in a 12 week endurance training program. The "Y's Way to Physical Fitness" battery of tests was used throughout. Blood glucose was measured with a portable meter using a finger prick and sterile, disposable lancet. Weight, percent body fat, resting heart rate, flexibility, one-minute recovery heart rate, bench press, sit-ups, VO2 max, and PWC max were analyzed to determine if there were significant differences in fitness after training.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Exercise program; Diabetics

Jackson, G. E. (1991). The effects of an exercise training program on the upper body muscular strength levels of elderly Blacks. Unpublished master's thesis, Howard University.


KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise training; Elderly

Joesting, J. (1981). Comparison on students who exercise with those who do not. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53(2), 426.

ABSTRACT: A total of 66 college students completed Body-Cathexis and Self-Cathexis Scales and indicated how many hours of physical activity they participated in each week. Subjects who reported five hours per week or more of physical activity had a higher self-concept and view of their bodies than those who exercised less than five hours per week.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Exercise

Johanson, W. L. (1990). Changes in body image as a result of participation in an exercise based fat reduction program. Unpublished master's thesis, University of The Pacific.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Physical fitness

Johnston, C. A. (1988). The relationship between self-esteem, exercise and body type acceptance in women. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Hayward.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Somatotypes

Karteroliotis, C. (1991). The relationship between physical self-perceptions and fitness achievement: A structural equation analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(03), 753A, The University of Iowa.

ABSTRACT: The study examines the longitudinal evidence of causal relationships among global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, and fitness achievement and employed a model which estimated the cross -lagged structural effects among these three constructs at two time points. A sample of 282 college students from two midwestern universities were recruited to assess Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Fox and Corbin's Self-Perception Scale and three health-related fitness tests. Results indicated that fitness achievement, physical self-perceptions, and general self-esteem remained stable from Time 1 to Time 2. No evidence of causal relationships among these three constructs over time. The importance of estimating and removing the effects of correlated measurement errors as well as the effects of residual errors when testing longitudinal causal models. Findings emphasized the advantages of using longitudinal structural equation models for testing complex causal relationships within the sport and exercise psychology area.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-esteem; Physical fitness

Keller, B. A. (1989). The influence of body size variables on gender differences in strength and maximum aerobic capacity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the influence of body mass (Mb), lean body mass (LBM), and physical activity status on gender differences in strength and maximum aerobic capacity. Sedentary (S) and endurance trained (T) males and females were matched for Mb and LBM. Results indicate that physical activity status did not influence significantly gender differences in strength and maximum aerobic capacity.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Gender differences

Kenny, J. (1985). Selected physiological changes in males and females after three months of variable resistance training and circuit weight training (nautilus, strength, supervised exercise, oxygen consumption). EDD, State university of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo.

ABSTRACT: This study investigated changes in cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility and body far in males and females after three months of circuit weight training and variable resistance training. ... (abridged)

KEYWORDS: Exercise; Men; Women

Kirschenbaum, D. (1995, June). Exercise on exercise. CBA Record, 9, 24.

ABSTRACT: Exercise your brainwaves to develop a learner, healthier body.

KEYWORDS: Body; Exercise

Kraslin, H. (1989). A comparative study of three weight loss programs: Physical exercise, psychoeducation, and combined physical exercise/psychoeducation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(07), 1988A, Clark University.

ABSTRACT: The study examines the relative effectiveness of three weight loss programs (Physical Exercise, Psychoeducation, and Combined Physical Exercise/Psychoeducation) among 142 overweight subjects. Program effects were measured by changes in Total Skinfold Measure (TSM), Percentage Ideal Body Weight (PIBW), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the end of a 13-week treatment period and a 13-week follow-up. The results show a significant weight loss (TSM and PIBW) and decrease in depression (BDI). There were no significant differences among treatment groups. The influence of subject characteristics (gender, age, expected weight loss, attendance, and homework compliance) on TSM, PIBW, and BDI yielded no significant differences, although trends in predicted directions were apparent.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Weight loss program; Physical exercise

Leon, G. R. (1984). Anorexia nervosa and sports activities. Behavior Therapist, 7(1), 9-10.

ABSTRACT: The study proposed that the athlete involved in rigorous training who also restricts food intake in order to maintain a low body weight adaptive for a particular sports activity often may be indistinguishable from an eating-disordered person who, for psychopathological reasons, engages in athletics to achieve and maintain an excessively low body weight. The study suggested that educators, therapists, and others should be sensitive to the possibility that some athletes may be at risk for the development of eating disorders as a result of a variety of pressures for an exceedingly thin physical appearance.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Anorexia nervosa; Sports

Leutholtz, B. (1991). The effects of exercise training and severe caloric restriction on lean-body mass in the obese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigates the effects of exercise intensity on the body composition of obese subjects during severe caloric restriction. Subjects were 40 obese subjects who were randomized into groups that exercised at 40% and 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR). No significant differences in body weight, body fat or lean weight were observed between the two groups. The study suggests that exercising at 60% of the HRR offers no advantages for body composition changes over those obtained from exercising at 40% of HRR.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Exercise training; Lean-body mass; Obesity

Lucas, J. (1994). The effects of a strength training program on the body image, self-concept, and dynamic strength of seventh grade girls. Unpublished master's thesis, Brigham Young University.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image ; Self-perception; Teenage girls

McAuley, E., Bane, S. M. N., Rudolph, D. L., & Lox, C. L. (1995). Physique anxiety and exercise in middle-aged adults. Journals of Gerontology: Series B - Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 50B(5), 229-235.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationships among body composition (BC), exercise participation, physique anxiety (PA) in a sample of middle-aged (45-64 yrs), formerly sedentary males and females. Analyses revealed females and those subjects 45-54 years old to be significantly more physique-anxious than their older counterparts. Results also indicated that being female and failing to reduce hip circumference were significantly related to post program PA.

KEYWORDS: Body composition; Body image; Body weight

McAuley, E., Bane, S. M., & Mihalko, S. L. (1995). Exercise in middle-aged adults: Self-efficacy and self-presentational outcomes. Preventative Medicine-An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 24(4), 319-328.

ABSTRACT: The study recruited 56 male and 58 female formerly sedentary adults (aged 45-64 years) who were participated in a 5-month exercise program with assessments of physique anxiety, efficacy, outcome expectations, and anthropometric variables prior to and following the program. The study found that acute bouts and long-term participation in exercise resulted in increases in self-efficacy. These changes in efficacy and initial positive outcome expectations were significant predictors of reductions in physique anxiety, even when controlling for the influence of gender and reductions in body fat, weight, and circumferences.

KEYWORDS: Body; Self-efficacy; Body image

McDonald, K., & Thompson, J. K. (1992). Eating disturbance, body image dissatisfaction, and reasons for exercising: Gender differences and correlational findings. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11(2), 289-292.

ABSTRACT: Samples of 100 physically active males and 91 physically active females (17-35 years old) were assessed for eating disturbance, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and reasons for engaging in exercise. Results indicate that women's motivation for exercise was more often related weight and tone reasons than that of men. For both genders, exercising for weight, tone, and attractiveness reasons was highly correlated with other measures of disturbance. Exercising because of health was associated positively with self-esteem for both sexes. Exercising for fitness was related to lower levels of eating disturbance and higher self-esteem for men. Overall activity level was related to greater eating disturbance for women, but less body dissatisfaction for men.

KEYWORDS: Body; Body image; Exercise; Eating disturbance

Melnick, M. J., & Moorkerjee, S. (1991). Effects of advanced weight training on body cathexis and self-esteem. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73(2), 1335.


KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-esteem

Meyer, N. (1986). The effects of ten weeks of strength and flexibility training on the strength, flexibility, body circumferences, and self-perceptions of middle and late middle aged women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(12), 4319A, University of Northern Colorado.

ABSTRACT: A sample of 31 untrained women (40-59 years), were trained 3 times a week for ten weeks for strength and flexibility using Nautilus machines and static stretching. The variables tested included shoulder strength, flexibility, body cathexis, global self-worth, and hip circumference. Significance differences were found for the total group between pretest and posttest in body cathexis, global self-worth, and shoulder strength. Age did not significantly affect the degree of improvement in any of the variables. Significant differences were also found between the previously aerobically active and inactive groups on posttest means for hip circumference and global self-worth. Lack of prior aerobic activity had a significant training impact on hip circumference decreases and global self-worth improvement. A prior history of aerobic activity participation did not give the active women an advantage on the shoulder strength pretest, posttest, or adjusted posttest means.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body circumference; Self-perceptions

Meyers, A., Stunkard, A., Coll, M., Cooke, C. (1980). Stairs, escalators, and obesity. Behavior Modification, 4(3), 355-359.

ABSTRACT: Examined the activity of 3217 obese and nonobese individuals in 4 public settings: a bus station, shopping mall, commuter railroad station, and an airport. Body type was determined using profiles of Sheldon's somatotypes. Results indicate that body weight was significantly related to activity choice, with obese Ss choosing escalators over stairs more frequently that overweight of normal weight.

KEYWORDS: Body type; Body weight

Milano, S. (1994, March). Fit for success. Entrepreneur, 22, 122.

ABSTRACT: Physical health has a lot to do with fiscal health. A discussion on how to bring your body and your business, up to par.


Moore, K. A. (1993). The effect of exercise on body image, self-esteem and mood. Mental Health in Australia, 5(1), 38-40.

ABSTRACT: The study employed 189 female Australian college students, 153 of whom were regular exercisers, to complete a battery of questionnaires designed to measure self-esteem, coping styles, mood states, and quality of life. Instruments included the Profile of Mood States and the Levenson Locus of Control Scales. There were no differences between exercisers and nonexercisers in terms of locus of control, coping strategies, or self-esteem. Exercisers reported a higher quality of life, better mood states, higher concentration, and less confusion.

KEYWORDS: Body; Self-esteem; Body image; Exercise

Muller, S. M. (1993). The effects of exercise induced changes on self esteem. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-esteem; Exercise

Muntzing, E. (1980). The effect of two training loads on specified fitness parameters in sedentary adult women: Ages 20-30, 31-40, and over 41. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(06), 2499A, Brigham Young University.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed the effect of two different training loads on specified fitness parameters in sedentary women. Subjects consisted of 29 sedentary women and were divided into 3 age groups: 9 subjects from 20-30, 10 subjects from 31-40, and 10 subjects from over 41. The results indicated that (1) the adaptation of fitness variables to endurance exercise is independent of age in sedentary women, (2) exercise involving expenditure of 150 Kcal and 300 Kcal produce similar effects on fitness parameters in sedentary women.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Fitness

Myerson, M. L. (1991). Etiology of athletic menstrual dysfunction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(03), 1278B, Columbia University Teachers College.

ABSTRACT: Many factors have been associated with menstrual dysfunction (AMD) including age, training regimen, and body fat. Recent studies have shown that although body fat is similar in amenorrheic (A) and eumenorrheic (E) athletes, the A tend to have a diet which lacks the quantity and quality of the E athletes. In the first part of the study, AMD I, A and E were similar in body fat determined by hydrodensitometry (HD) and in other physical and training characteristics. The caloric intake was lower in the A and they scored significantly higher on a scale of aberrant eating patterns. In AMD II, results indicate that body fat did not differ significantly in A and E runners, suggesting that nutritional and metabolic factors were more important in the etiology of AMD.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Menstrual dysfunction

Nelson, J. K. (1982). The function of age, gender, and body size characteristics on physical fitness performance. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(07), 2276A, University of Houston Campus.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to examine the AAHPERD test. The purpose of the study was to answer two major questions: was physical fitness a function of gender? If so, could these gender differences be explained by age and body size characteristics? The sample group was 12,362 boys and girls, ages 6 through 17, throughout the US The performance of boys was superior to girls on the mile run and sit-up tests, while girls out-performed boys on the sit and reach test. When controlling for age in combination with height and weight or body mass index, significant gender differences still remained. This showed that body size characteristics did not explain the gender test differences. Although age and body size characteristics were found to be related to test performance on all test items, they did not explain the gender variation in these tests.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Physical fitness

Netz, Y., Tennenbaum, G., & Sagiv, M. (1988). Pattern of psychological fitness as related to pattern of physical fitness among older adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(2), 647-655.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated psychological and physical fitness among eleven men (56-64 years) and thirteen women (50-60 years) before, during, and after a 12-week physical activity program. Results show improvement of fitness was gradual and significant for both sexes, whereas, no effects of time or sex were found. Differences in patterns of change between women and men on well-being confirm previous findings that indicate women report more depression and less satisfaction than men and are more sensitive to change.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Physical fitness; Psychological fitness

O'Donoghue, R. K. (1989). A causal analysis of the interrelationship among physical fitness, body esteem, perception of fitness and self-concept for female participants of noncompetitive sport. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.

ABSTRACT: The study tested existing theory concerning the effects of fitness on self-concept for females. An extension to existing theory was suggested and tested in the form of a revised model. This model states that the effects of fitness on self-concept is mediated by perception of fitness and body esteem. A total of 58 females were tested on measures of fitness, self-concept, body esteem, and perception of fitness. The results suggested that the effects of fitness on self-concept are mediated by perception of fitness and body esteem. Fitness may not have a direct effect on females' self-concepts, but the effects are better seen in subjects' perception of fitness and levels of body esteem.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body esteem; Physical fitness

Peraglie, C. B. (1991). The impact of anaerobic and aerobic exercise during caloric restriction upon the composition of body mass loss and energy expenditure in overweight males. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University.

ABSTRACT: The impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise during caloric restriction and caloric restriction alone was investigated in 30 overweight males. Subjects were randomly distributed in 3 groups: anaerobic exercise plus diet, aerobic exercise plus diet, and diet only. There was no significant difference between these groups when weight loss was analyzed, but a significant decrease within each group occurred. The type of exercise (anaerobic versus aerobic) which accompanies caloric restriction can be one which is individualized by the clinician to the dieter's preference.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body mass; Aerobic exercise

Pollock, M. (1974). Follow up study on the effects of conditioning four days per week on the physical fitness of adult men. American Corrective Therapy Journal, Sept. - Oct., 135-139.

ABSTRACT: Investigated the importance of frequency of training for improving the cardiovascular function and body composition of middle-aged men. Nine healthy, sedentary male Ss, aged 28 - 47, volunteered to exercise 30 min./day, 4 times/week for 20 weeks. Initial testing was preceded by 3 orientation sessions. subsequent tests were administered after 10 and 20 weeks of training. All tests were administered in the post-absorptive state before 10:00 AM. The conditioning program was conducted at 90-95% of maximum heart rate and consisted of walking, jogging, and running. Results show the 4 day/week program resulted in significant improvement and was related both to intensity of work and to total expenditure of energy. Thus for the same frequency of conditioning, increasing the duration may offset a lowering of the intensity level.

KEYWORDS: Physical fitness; Males

Rainey, D. (1997). Foundations of personal fitness. Minneapolis: West Pub Company.

ABSTRACT: The book discusses the foundations of physical fitness, the benefits of regular exercise, the advantages of weight training, and proper nutrition.

KEYWORDS: Body; Fit; Personal fitness

Reeder, E. N. (1977). Clothing preferences of male athletes in relation to self-concept, athletic ability, race, socioeconomic status, and peer perception. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept; Clothing preferences; Male athletes

Renfrow, N., Bolton, B. (1979). Personality characteristics associated with aerobic exercise in adult males. Journal of Personality Assessment, 43(3), 261 - 266.

ABSTRACT: Used an index of aerobic conditioning, 23 adult males exercisers and 23 nonexercisers (29 - 70 years old faculty members). During individual interviews with each S, basic demographic data were obtained, and blood pressure, vital capacity, resting pulse rate and body fat were measured. All Ss completed form A of the 16 PF. Statistically significant differences occurred on 6 primary factors and 4 secondary dimensions of the 16 PF. In comparison to the inactive Ss the exercisers, all of whom were joggers or runners, were more reserved, expedient, suspicious, forthright, liberal, and self-sufficient on the primary traits, and were more alert and independent, less discreet, and evidenced lower super-ego strengthen the broader secondary patterns. The significant training effects were lower pulse rate and less body fat but not lower blood pressure.

KEYWORDS: Personality; Aerobic exercise; Adult males

Riddick, C. C., & Freitag, R. S. (1984). The impact of an aerobic fitness program on the body image of older women. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 6(1), 59-70.

ABSTRACT: The study tested somatopsychic theory by investigating the relationship between participation in a fitness program and the self-perceived body image (BI) of older female adults among six female adult participants aged 50-70 years. Results support the somatopsychic theory, suggesting that efforts directed at developing a fit body have spillover effects on other aspects of an older woman's personality, specifically perceived body image.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Elderly

Sakuma, S. M. (1990). Fat or fit: Is there a correlation. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College.

ABSTRACT: Subjects include: body composition, physical fitness, army weight control program.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Salusso-Deonier, C. J., & Schwarzkopf, R. J. (1991). Sex differences in body cathexis associated with exercise involvement. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73(1), 139.

ABSTRACT: The study examined sex differences in body cathexis (BCX) for two groups: (a) 52 female and 23 male students from a university fitness improvement class, and (b) a comparison groups of 41 female and nine male students from classes unrelated to exercise, by asking the subjects to complete Body Cathexis Scale. Multivariate analysis of post-study data yielded a significant effect for the exercise involvement of fitness class men and women. Regular exercise seems to have potential as a method for improving BCX for both men and women.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Exercise involvement

Santiago, M. C. (1990). Effects of a forty-week walking program of twelve miles per week on physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipids and lipoproteins in sedentary women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.

ABSTRACT: Previously sedentary women (n=16) were randomly assigned to a walking or non-exercise control group (n=11) for the 40-week period. Patterns of change were noted in body constitution for both walking and control groups as indicated by decreases in body weight, body mass index, sum of skinfolds, and fat weight for walkers and increases in body weight, body mass index, and sums of skinfolds for controls. There were no significant changes in levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, or high density lipoprotein or its subfractions over the 40-week period. These data suggest that a long term, 12 mile per week walking program, in sedentary women, substantially increases cardiorespiratory fitness and decreases body fat. In contrast, long-term periods of physical inactivity results in an increase in body fat. This study also demonstrates that walking can reverse declines in high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with progressive increases in fatness related to physical inactivity.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body composition; Walking program

Schaberg, G. S. (1986). Effects of aerobic and weight training exercise on the body composition of pre and postmenopausal women. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Texas, Tyler.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body composition; Weight training exercise

Schlamowitz, K. E. (1984). Body building: Masculine protest or the expression of a normal personality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona.

ABSTRACT: A sample of 37 competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, along with 20 weight-training comparison subjects were evaluated with respect to their personality characteristics, sex-role identity, and degree of body satisfaction. The study suggests that competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, as well as men who incorporate weight-training into an exercise routine, demonstrate no remarkable or pathological personality characteristics. Neither do they differ significantly from the average population in terms of sex-role identification or the degree to which they are satisfied with their bodies.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Seggar, J. F., McCammon, D. L., & Cannon, L. D. (1988). Relations between physical activity, weight discrepancies, body cathexis, and psychological well-being in college women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(2), 659-669.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the relations between physical activity, weight discrepancies, body cathexis, and indicators of psychological well-being in 323 college women. Analyses showed that physical activity was not directly related to psychological well-being. However, physical activity reduced weight discrepancies and improved body cathexis. Results also indicate that there were distinctive patterns of satisfaction with body parts and processes depending on whether the subjects' body types conformed to or deviated from idealized weights and heights.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body cathexis; Psychological well-being

Skrinar, G. S., Bullen, B. A., Cheek, J. M., & McArthur, J. W. (1986). Effects of endurance training on body-consciousness in women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62(2), 483-490.

ABSTRACT: The Body Consciousness Questionnaire was employed to assess the effects of intensive endurance training on changes in self-perception in thirteen women volunteers aged 20-30 years. Results suggest that endurance and moderate exercise training contribute to increased self-perception specifically with regard to perceived internal consciousness and body competence.

KEYWORDS: Body consciousness; Exercise

Sonstroem, R. J., Harlow, L. L., & Josephs, L. (1994). Exercise and self-esteem: Validity of model expansion and exercise associations. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 29-42.

ABSTRACT: The research examined the validity of expanding the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) developed by R.J. Sonstroem and W.P. Morgan in 216 female aerobic dancers. This research was designed to include two levels of perceived physical competence as operationalized by the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP). A self-esteem scale was administered along with the PSPP to assess general physical self-worth, and more specific subdomains of perceived sport competence, physical condition, attractive body, and strength.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-perception; Physical fitness; Self-efficacy

Swan, P. D. (1991). The effects of body fat distribution on metabolism at rest and during exercise in women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee.

ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed to examine metabolic differences at rest and in response to exercise between two groups of obese women distinctly characterized by their body fat locations. Subjects were 21 overfat women (18-40 years) with normal health and blood lipid profiles, who were participated in a resting metabolic rate (RMR) test, two mechanical efficiency (ME) tests (cycle and treadmill), and a prolonged walking (PW) test to assess fuel utilization. No differences were found in the amount of rate fuel utilized as fat during PW between groups. The results indicate obese women with different body fat distribution patterns have similar physiological potentials for energy expenditure. Both groups showed equal capabilities for performing prolonged exercise with the typical metabolic shift in fuel utilization.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body fat distribution

Tarkan, L. (1994, February 22). Custom fitness: The plan that works. Family Circle, 107, 84.

ABSTRACT: Quiz for body type; drop a size with a personalized three-part workout.

KEYWORDS: Body type

Tucker, L. A. (1982). Effect of a weight-training program on the self-concepts of college males. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54(3, Pt 2), 1055-1061.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of a weight-training program on the self-concepts of 105 subjects. Investigating whether or not success in lifting program affected self-concepts. Significant differences between groups were found on five of the nine self-concept measures, including the Total Positive Score. This supported the hypothesis that regular weight-training positively influences self-concept.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight-training

Tucker, L. A. (1983). Effect of weight training on self-concept: A profile of those influenced most. Research Quarterly for Exercise Sport, 54(4), 389-397.

ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study was (1) to examine the effect of weight training on the self-concepts of 240 college males, (2) to identify the types of males, relative to measures of extroversion, neuroticism, body cathexis, somatotype, and muscular strength, who experience the most improvement in self-concept during a lifting program. Results reveal significant post-test differences in global, internal, and external self-concept between the groups, confirming the hypothesis that regular weight training is positively associated with the improvement of self-concept. Changes in neuroticism, body cathexis, and muscular strength scores were significant predictors of self-concept change, indicating that the positive association between weight training and self-concept enhancement is mutivariately determined, and that some types of males experience more improvement of self-concept than others during a weight-training regime.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Self-concept; Weight training

Tucker, L. A., & Maxwell, K. (1992). Effects of weight training on the emotional well-being and body image of females: Predictors of greatest benefit. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6(5), 338-344.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine the extent to which participant in a weight training program was associated with changes in body cathexis and emotional well-being, as well as the extent to which psychological factors affected these changes. An experimental group (EG) of 60 female university students who participated in a 15-wk weight-training intervention and in a physical exercise program 3 days/wk along with a control group (CG) of 92 women were recruited to assess the General Well-Being Schedule and the Body Cathexis Scale. The EG showed greater improvements in emotional well-being and body image relative to the CG. Weight training was associated with psychological improvement.

KEYWORDS: Body cathexis; Body image; Weight training

Vedder, M. J. (1985). Sound body, sound mind: The influence of fitness training on self-esteem, perceived fitness and favorable/unfavorable cognitions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to examine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and self-esteem. Undergraduate students at Southern Illinois University, participated in a 15-week Exercise and Fitness Class treatment, were assessed 4 times on cardiovascular fitness, self-esteem, perceived fitness and thought-listing; a control group was concurrently assessed for self-esteem and thought-listing. The results do not support the hypotheses that self-esteem and cardiovascular fitness are related, that self-esteem and cognitions are related, or that there exists a cognitively mediated link between physical fitness and psychological variables.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Self-esteem; Fitness training

Voorrips, L. E., Meijers, J. H. H., Sol, P., Seidell, J. C., & Staveren, W. A. V. (1992). History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity. International Journal of Obesity, 16(3), 199-205.

ABSTRACT: Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. Information was collected on each womens' situation at ages 12, 25, 40, and 55 years. Classification of obesity was checked by old photographs rated by interviewers, sizes of clothing, and recalled body weight and height. Weight index was statistically significant between the active and sedentary group from age 25 onwards. Photographs proved to be useful for a valid and objective categorization.

KEYWORDS: Body size

Wynne, M. A. (1990). The psychological contributions of physical activity to middle-aged woman. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(12), 3890A, The Ohio State University.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the transitional years of middle-age and the potential for physical activity to make valuable contributions to women during this stage. Data was collected from 30 women (40-55 years) through an in-depth interview, the guide for which was designed by the researcher after review of the literature and a pilot study with four women. Findings indicated that the middle years are years of transition, which may provide both an opportunity for growth and for decline. Physical activity is one area that has a great deal to offer this segment of the population.

KEYWORDS: Physical activity

Yotides, E. (1995). Weight regulation in male and female collegiate athletes: The relationship between knowledge, attitude and behavior. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; College athletes; Health and hygiene