Psychological ramifications of body esteem/cathexis issues can lead to intervention such as treatments and self-improvement strategies.

Boucher, L. S. (1986). Interests and other psychological correlates of various actual and perceived body weights. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body weight

Butters, J. W. (1987). Cognitive behavioral treatment of women's body image dissatisfaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(6), 889-897.

ABSTRACT: Body image dissatisfaction is a problem that affects a substantial minority of women and cuts across various diagnostic groups. College women with a significant level of body image dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program (n=15) or to a waiting-list control group (n=16). At pretest, posttest, and seven-week follow-up, multiple aspects of body image and other areas of psychosocial functioning were assessed. Relative to the control condition, the CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and sexuality.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Cognitive-behavioral treatment

Chodil, J. J. (1980). An investigation of the relation between perceived body space, actual body space, body image boundary, and self-esteem. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-perception; Environmental psychology

Cogan, T. E. (1992). The relationship between self-esteem, body image and dieting cognitions. Unpublished master's thesis, Northeast Missouri State University.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-evaluation; Body image

Cohen-Tovee, E. M. (1993). Depressed mood and concern with weight and shape in normal young women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14(2), 223-227.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the possible role of depression in accentuating the concerns with weight and shape found in two groups of normal female population: a group of seventeen undergraduates, who placed a high personal value on shape or weight, and a group of sixteen undergraduates, who placed a low value on shape and weight.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Body weight; Depression emotion

Connors, M. E. (1984). Structured group treatment of normal weight bulimic women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Depaul University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of a structured group treatment program for normal weight bulimic women. Subjects were 20 women who were bingeing and purging at least once weekly received 12 two-hour sessions of group treatment. Results indicated that a reduction in the number of binge/purge episodes and an increase in the number of binge-free days were associated with group treatment. Improvement on several self-report measures were associated with group treatment, including increases in the self-esteem, feelings of control, and sense of effectiveness. The data suggest that structured group treatment constitutes an effective and efficient intervention for bulimia.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia

Cook, V. L. (1993). Self-esteem as a mediator of disturbance in body image: An experimental analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Mississippi.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Cooper, P. J., & Taylor, M. J. (1988). Body image disturbance in bulimia nervosa: Second Leeds Psychopathology Symposium, the psychopathology of body image. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (Suppl 2), 32-36.

ABSTRACT: The study examined body image disturbance in bulimia nervosa and found a significant tendency for bulimics to overestimate body size, but that estimate differentials between bulimics and controls are not great and show variability in both groups. Previous research done by the same authors showed that the index of body size dissatisfaction was almost three times as great for bulimics. Moreover, overestimation and dissatisfaction were significantly related to low self-esteem, the level of neurotic symptoms, and many of the subscales on an eating disorders inventory.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Bulimia nervosa

Coovert, D. L. (1987). Body size estimation: Generalization and relationship to two measures of bulimic symptomatology in a sample of female college students. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Florida.


KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Cox, C. R. (1987). Risk factors in the development of bulimia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Marquette University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated factors which predipose adolescent females toward bulimia. The study was aimed to test variables which pertain to three major adolescent tasks, such as: securing a sex-role identity, coming to terms with the maturing body, and establishing social interactions, in order to determine to what extent these variables separately and as a combined model contribute to the development of bulimia. A sample of 211 female high school students (mean age=15.7 years) participated in the study. Results show that sex-role identity did not contribute to the development of bulimic tendencies. There was a strong relationship between negative self-esteem and bulimic tendencies. Public Self-Consciousness affected bulimic tendencies. Results also indicated that media influence significantly contributed to the development of bulimic tendencies.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia

Davis, S. M. (1994). Women's attitudes toward their fathers: Are these related to their body image and self-esteem. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Diedrick, P. A. (1989). Defining self-esteem, self-worth and self-efficacy of women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(09), 4055B, University of Georgia.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated two dimensions of self-esteem (worth, as perceptions of morality, and efficacy, as perceptions of instrumentality) in 309 college females. Of the participants, 47 aspired to traditional female careers, and 141 aspired to traditional male careers. The remainder were planning careers that were neither traditional female nor traditional male, or had not decided on a career. The study concluded that (a) self-efficacy was the most relevant dimension of self-esteem for both groups, (b) self-worth was also important to the self-esteem of woman who inspire to traditional career, (c) there is little association between self-esteem and perceptions of relationships with parents.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-worth; Self-efficacy

Eldredge, K., Wilson, G. T., & Whaley, A. (1990). Failure, self evaluation, and feeling fat in women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9(1), 37-50.

ABSTRACT: A study to test the hypothesis by R. Striegel-Moore et al. (1986) that women who feel fat have self-schemas in which body weight is a central component, and that any experience that gives rise to self-evaluation leads to evaluation of body and weight. Although the results fail to support the hypothesis, the subjects were indicated to describe their bodies in an evaluative manner.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-evaluation; Body image; Body weight; Adolescence

Endo, Y. (1992). Negative ideal self as a standard of self-esteem. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 63(3), 214-217.

ABSTRACT: The study of how discrepancies between negative ideal self and real self are associated with self-esteem were conducted using 110 normal male and female Japanese undergraduates. Subjects were given a list of 50 positive and negative items in the domains of school, family, and other interpersonal areas, lifestyle, personality, and body image that were related to self-recognition.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept

Fox, R., Burkhart, J. E., & Rotatori, A. F. (1983). Eating behavior of obese and nonobese mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 87(5), 570-573.

ABSTRACT: A total of 14 obese and nonobese (mean age=30.3 years, mean IQ=50.6) moderately mentally retarded adults were identified through use of body weight and tricep skinfold thickness measures. Subjects were observed individually in a sheltered workshop cafeteria during their lunch. A variety of eating behavior measures indicated that the obese retarded subjects did not differ from their nonobese peers in eating rate, total meal time, or caloric intake.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity

Fox, R. A., Haniotes, H., & Rotatori, A. (1984). A streamlined weight loss program for moderately retarded adults in a sheltered workshop setting. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 5(1), 69-79.

ABSTRACT: An abbreviated version of a behavioral weight loss (WL) program for obese retarded adults was provided for 2 groups of 8 moderately retarded, obese adults (mean ages: 29.5 and 27.5 years, IQs 42.1 and 46.3) working in a sheltered workshop. The program involved 10 weeks of treatment, 5 weeks of maintenance, and a 1-year follow-up check. No differences in WL or percent WL were found between the buddy reinforcement group and the other treatment group at the end of treatment or maintenance and during follow-up.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Weight loss program

Harper, L. R. (1984). Kent State University. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kent State University.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the social and affective components of body image in eating disorders. Subjects were women and were assessed on a variety of self-description measures completed at their current weight, and then, again, while imagining that they were at their self-determined "ideal weight." Results indicated that bulimics and bingers perceived themselves to be significantly more overweight than the normal controls and reported a significantly greater drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction than women without eating disorders. The results suggest that there is an interplay between social influences and affective aspects of body image disturbance in eating disorders. Results also suggested that while bulimics can be seen as having distinct feelings about their actual weight, their ideal weight, and value attached to attaining their ideal weight, the bingers may be a very heterogeneous group of women on these dimensions.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Bulimia; Anorexia nervosa

Heatherton, T. F., Polivy, J., & Herman, C. P. (1991). Restraint, weight loss, and variability of body weight. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(1), 78-83.

ABSTRACT: Restrained and unrestrained subjects (n=24) were weighed daily for 6-wk period and 6-wk later in order to determine whether restraint or relative body weight is the better predictor of weight variability. Results show that exaggerated weight fluctuations are not a natural concomitant of higher body weight but possibly the consequences of a cycle of dieting and overeating, which seems to preclude actual weight loss.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Diets

Hetherington, M. M., & Burnett, L. (1994). Aging and the pursuit of slimness: Dietary restraint and weight satisfaction in elderly women. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(3), 391-400.

ABSTRACT: The study compared dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in women aged 60-78 and women aged 18-31. Subjects completed the Eating Attitudes Test, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results indicated that dietary restraint and eating attitudes were similar across age groups. Differences between current BW and desired BW were equivalent for both age groups, but young subjects reported significantly greater dissatisfaction with their bodies, scored higher on the BSQ, and experienced more disinhibited eating than did elderly subjects.

KEYWORDS: Weight satisfaction; Body satisfaction; Dietary restraint; Elderly

McGovern, S. R. (1988). The value of thinness in females: Age and sex-role factors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(07), 2866B, Emory University.

ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship of the thinness value to age, sex-role, and self-esteem. Results show that even in nonclinical female populations, preference for body thinness has become normative. Results show that traditional and nontraditional women alike are equally committed to thinness as a value. The findings suggest that while nonclinical females valued thiness, they are less likely than eating-disordered females to use it as a definitive measure of self-worth.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem

Mortenson, G. M. (1991). Health behaviors and attitudes of college women classified according to body satisfaction and unrestrained eating behaviors. Unpublished master's thesis, Michigan State University.

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine body satisfaction and unrestrained eating in a sample of college women and compare this group to other college women in terms of body weight, self-esteem, food group intake, eating patterns, physical activity and roles of women. A questionnaire was administered to 249 college women and anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 103 women were classified into one of three groups based on body dissatisfaction or satisfaction, and restrained or unrestrained eating behaviors. The group of satisfied/unrestrained had significantly lower BMI values, higher self-esteem, consumed greater amount of meat, high fat foods and calorie dense snacks and consumed lunch and supper more frequently than the dissatisfied/restrained women. The findings suggest that further calorie restriction for dissatisfied/restrained women might not be recommended.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight; Body satisfaction

Norris, D. L. (1984). The effects of mirror confrontation on self-estimation of body dimensions in anorexia nervosa, bulimia and two control groups. Psychological Medicine, 14(4), 835-842.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed self-estimations of four body widths before and after a mirror confrontation procedure on four groups of young female subjects: anorexic (13-20 years), bulimic (16-23 years), normal (13-20 years), and emotionally disturbed (13-20 years). Results confirm that anorexic, bulimic, and emotionally disturbed subjects overestimated body size. Normal subjects were remarkably accurate. Mirror confrontation resulted in reduced estimations in the majority of subjects, but significant differences were found in the degree to which this occurred in the four groups, where anorexia subjects showed the greatest change and normal subjects the least.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body dimension; Self-estimation

Phelps, L., Swift Johnston, L., Jimenez, D. P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Andrea, R. K. (1993). Figure preference, body dissatisfaction, and body distortion in adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(3), 297.


KEYWORDS: Body; Adolescence

Quas, V. (1990). The lean body promise: Your future body, an owner's manual. (1st ed.). Bend, Oregon: Synesis Press.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Reducing exercises; Dieting

Rolls, B. J., Fedoroff, I. C., & Guthrie, J. F. (1991). Gender differences in eating behavior and body weight regulation. Health Psychology, 10(2), 133-142.

ABSTRACT: Research indicates that gender differences in food intake and selection first appear in adolescence. Men consume more calories than women. However, women experience more food-related conflict than men in that they like fattening foods but perceive they should not eat them. Pressures to be thin are present in early adolescence, as noted by dieting behavior in young girls.

KEYWORDS: Food intake; Food Preferences; Body weight

Rudnick, L. J. (1985). An educational approach for enhancing self-esteem through body awareness and body movement. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(07), 1979A, The Fielding Institute.

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to develop and investigate an educational body awareness and creative body movement program with the hope of gaining insights into its possible effectiveness in increasing self-esteem. Findings suggest that the inclusion of body awareness and creative body movement in a classroom experience stimulate (a) direct communication through physical contact with oneself and others, (b) active involvement, (c) self-control.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body awareness; Body movement

Sabatine, J. A. (1995). Understanding cardiorespiratory fitness, body image, and self-esteem in adolescent female athletes. Unpublished master's thesis, Springfield College.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Physical fitness; Self-esteem in adolescence; Cardiopulmonary system

Schellinger, M. M. (1992). Relationship of perceived and objective weight status to body image and perceived interference of social relationships in the adolescent population: A research study. Unpublished master's thesis, La Salle University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight

Schlamowitz, K. E. (1984). Body building: Masculine protest or the expression of a normal personality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona.

ABSTRACT: A sample of 37 competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, along with 20 weight-training comparison subjects were evaluated with respect to their personality characteristics, sex-role identity, and degree of body satisfaction. The study suggests that competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, as well as men who incorporate weight-training into an exercise routine, demonstrate no remarkable or pathological personality characteristics. Neither do they differ significantly from the average population in terms of sex-role identification or the degree to which they are satisfied with their bodies.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Schulz, L. E. (1961). Relationships between body image and physical performance in adolescent girls. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.


KEYWORDS: Body image

Shaffer, J. N. (1985). Women, body image, and self-esteem: The study of a new method of treatment; a project based upon an independent investigation. Unpublished master's thesis, Smith College for Social Work.


KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image

Shontz, F. C. (1969). Perceptual and cognitive aspects of body experience. New York: Academic Press.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-concept

Silberstein, L. R., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Timko, C., & Rodin, J. (1988). Behavioral and psychological implications of body dissatisfaction: Do men and women differ. Sex Roles, 19(3-4), 219-232.

ABSTRACT: Relationships of body satisfaction, self-esteem, dieting, and exercise were examined in 45 female and 47 male undergraduates. Findings show that males and females did not differ in degree of body dissatisfaction as assessed by measure of body esteem, body size drawings, and measures of weight dissatisfaction. Unlike women, men were as likely to want to be heavier as thinner. Women reported exercising for weight control more than men, and exercising for weight control was associated with disregulated eating.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body satisfaction; Self-esteem

Skello, T. A. (1995). A qualitative study on body image and diet among women. Unpublished master's thesis, Ball State University.


KEYWORDS: Body image

Slaughter, M., Christ, C., Boileau, R., & Stillman, R. (1993). Differences in the fat-free body to height relationship among young, older and mature adults. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 71, 187-187.


KEYWORDS: Body; Height; Age; Fat

Smith, C. I. (1990). Causal attribution, self-efficacy, and body image as perceived and described by obese and over weight persons. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Carolina.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity

Smith, M. A. (1993). The effects of exercise on body image. Unpublished master's thesis, Appalachian State University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise

Spitzer, L., & Rodin, J. (1981). Human eating behavior: A critical review of studies in normal weight and overweight individuals. Appetite, 2(4), 293-329.

ABSTRACT: The study evaluates numereous research of eating behavior conducted since 1968 that use amount eaten, meal duration, rate of eating, eating style, verbal report, and salivation as dependent variables. Results indicated that: (1) Palatability is the most consistent variable influencing amount eaten and producing overweight-normal weight differences in amount eaten, (2) Deprivation, palatability, and overweight-normal weight differences in differentially affect meal duration when the impact of amount eaten is held constant, (3) differences in rate over the course of a meal may differentially reflect hunger (rapid eating at onset) and satiety (slowing to termination), (4) measures of eating style have not yielded much information since they have generally not been used in conceptually meaningful ways, (5) Verbal reports of hunger and palatability relate to state of short-term deprivation but correlate poorly with measure of amount eaten, perhaps because they are each measuring different processes, (6) Salivation in response to a food stimulus increases with deprivation and palatability.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Eating behavior

Stalling, R. B., & Miller, A. (1981). Effect of fictitious food ratings on eating behavior of obese and normal people. Journal of Obesity and Weight Regulation, 1(2), 105-110.

ABSTRACT: The study examined whether the external cues to which the obese are sensitive include cognitive or social cues, such as other people's opinions. Subjects consisted of 60 overweight, normal weight, and underweight undergraduates and were served 3 "types" of doughnuts (cut in quarters); then, they were asked to rate the taste and told to eat as much as they wished. Results show that all 3 weight groups, not just the obese, were influenced by the external cue. All groups rated higher and ate more of the doughnuts ostensibly preferred by others.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Eating behavior

Steinberg, C. L., & Birk, J. M. (1983). Weight and compliance: Male-female differences. Journal of General Psychology, 109(1), 95-102.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the willingness of 60 male and 60 female subjects (18-23 years) ov varying weights to comply with requests for a favor made by 4 confederates-2 males (1 overweight, 1 normal weight) and 2 females (1 overweight, 1 normal weight). Both male and female subjects were less compliant to requests from an overweight than a normal weight confederate. Overweight subjects were more compliant to normal weight opposite-sex confederates than to overweight opposite-sex confederates.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

Stonebraker, P. M. (1988). Biocultural influences on male and female body images, eating and activity behaviors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Mind and body; Eating disorders

Storz, N. S. (1982). Body image of obese adolescent girls in a high school and clinical setting. Adolescence, 17(67), 667-672.

ABSTRACT: The study compared 27 obese females (12-17 years) with 20 age-matched subjects seeking help for their obesity in hospital-affiliated program for weight reduction. Subjects completed a descriptive data questionnaire and a human figure drawing test. Drawings were judged according to Witkin's Articulation of Body Concept Scale. Subjects showed a significantly greater difference in their selection of outline drawings of the female figure perceived to represent their actual as compared to ideal body sizes. No significant difference was found in articulation or body concept as revealed in human figure drawings; however, the difference between the mean scores of the 2 groups in articulation of body concept and negative adjectives used to describe present appearance approach significance in a t-test analysis.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity; Adolescent

Sunday, S. R., Halmi, K. A., Werdann, L., & Levey, C. (1992). Comparison of body size estimation and eating disorder inventory scores in anorexia and bulimia patients with obese, and restrained controls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11(2), 133-149.

ABSTRACT: Psychological attributes and body size estimation were compared in four subgroups of anorexia and bulimia patients, an obese group, an unrestrained control group, and a restrained control group. All anorexia and bulimia subgroups overestimated the size of their hips and their body depth relative to the two control groups and obese group. There were no differences in body size estimation between the subgroups of anorexia and bulimia patients.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body weight

Sutton, R. (1988). Body worry. (Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Physical fitness; Health

Taylor, M. J., & Cooper, P. J. (1992). An experimental study of the effect of mood on body size perception. Behavior Research and Therapy, 30(1), 53-58.

ABSTRACT: Two groups of female students were asked to estimate their size and indicate their degree of dissatisfaction with their body size before and after the induction of a negative or positive mood state. The first group consisted of 36 subjects (mean age 29 yrs), who received the positive induced mood state, had less disturbances in body size than the second group of 37 subjects (mean age 19.9 yrs) who had the low mood state. Among subjects who received the negative mood dissatisfaction with their body size, the induction of low mood led to greater disturbances in body size perception in the form of overestimating their body size significantly more and a tendency toward greater dissatisfaction with their body size.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image

Thatcher, J. (1992). Fashion, fetishism, female body modification and related health issues. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Chico.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Fashion; Eating disorders

Thelen, T. H., & Alumbaugh, R. V. (1983). Relative body weight as a factor in the decision to abort. Psychological Reports, 52(3), 763-775.

ABSTRACT: Abortion referral data of 692 pregnant women (13-44 years) visiting a large urban planned parenthood clinic were analyzed to determine whether relative weight, as measured by an adiposity index, as well as other variables were associated with a decision to terminate or not terminate a pregnancy. In analyses of all subjects and of a subsample consisting only of those in the early stages of pregnancy, increased relative weight was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abortion. Reasons for this relationship are explored with respect to loneliness, employment, initiative, and threat to physical appearance. The study also suggested that if heavier women are less likely to terminate their pregnancies and are having collectively more children than lighter women, increased relative body weight in human can be expected.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Abortion

Theron, W. H., Nel, E. M., & Lubbe, A. J. (1991). Relationship between body image and self-consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73(3, Pt 1), 979-983.

ABSTRACT: The study assessed whether there was a relation between body image and self-consciousness and whether there would be any sex differences on measures of these two concepts. Participants were 56 male and 211 female Afrikaans and English-speaking undergraduates who completed a physical self-concept scale and a self-consciousness scale, negative correlations emerged between body image and self-concept and social anxiety, respectively. Private and public self-consciousness correlated positively with each other and with social anxiety. Men and women differed significantly only on social anxiety, with higher social anxiety in women.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception

Thomas, R. C. (1992). The relationships among bulimia nervosa, self-esteem and persuasibility. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(05), 2556B, United States International University.

ABSTRACT: The study sought to clarify the role of cultural factors in the development of bulimia nervosa, specifically examined were the effects of current societal dictates regarding slimness and fitness for women. Bulimic and nonbulimic women viewed a video tape containing an amalgamation of idealized images of female beauty, excerpted from beauty and fitness self-help videotypes. Findings supported the hypothesis, indicating that level of bulimic severity was significantly predictive of persuasibility. Support was also found for the consistent clinical and research observation that bulimic women suffer from low self-esteem.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Eating disorders

Thompson, J. K. (1990). Body image disturbance: Assessment and treatment. New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.

ABSTRACT: This book provides a broad overview of prevalence data and associated features of body image dysfunction. However, the major purpose of this book is to provide a methodologies for various aspects of body image disturbance. The author presents an empirically based approach to body image disturbance, which focuses on cognitive-behavioral methods of assessment and treatment with a variety of populations.

KEYWORDS: Body image ; Body weight; self-perception

Tiggemann, M., Winefield, H. R., & Winefield, A. H. (1994). Gender differences in the psychological correlates of body-weight in young adults. Psychology and Health, 9(5), 345-351.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the activity and psychological correlates of body weight and attitudes in a sample of young adults. Body mass indexes were calculated for 235 men and 248 women (aged 21-23 yrs). Women tended to view themselves as more overweight than did men, regardless of their true weight. This trend has consequences for women's health (e.g. eating disorders, unnecessary diets) and self-esteem.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Health attitudes; Personality correlates; Body mass

Todyz, S. W. (1984). Body shape perception and its disturbance in anorexia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 167-171.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the perception of body shape among 15 female patients (mean age 19.06 years) with anorexia nervosa and 15 age-matched controls (mean age 20.75 years) to evaluate subjects' judgments of perceived present shape (subjective image), ideal shape, least desired shape, and the expected shape of a normal-weight model. Subjects showed a greater tendency tendency to over-and underestimate their present body shape than did controls. Subjects' desired body shape was significantly thinner than that of controls, as was their estimation of what constitutes a normal body shape. It is asserted that not all anorexia nervosa patients overestimate their body weight. However, subjects with anorexia nervosa had a marked misperception as to what constitutes a normal body weight. It is suggested that alteration of this misperception may have important implications for treatment.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body shape

Towle, S. M. (1966). The relation between anxiety, body weight, and weight change. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity; Anxiety

Tucker, L. A., & Mortell, R. (1993). Comparison of the effects of walking and weight training programs on body image in middle-aged women: An experimental study. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(1), 34-42.

ABSTRACT: The study compared the effects of a resistive training intervention and an exercise walking program on body image in 60 sedentary, nonobese women (aged 35-49 years), and developed 2 multivariate models to explain the improvements. Assessments included the Body Cathexis Scale for body image, a 1-mile walk for cardiovascular endurance, and standard weight training procedures for muscular strength. Lifters showed greater muscular strength than walkers; walkers displayed greater cardiorespiratory endurance than the lifters. Lifters also improved significantly more in body image than did the walkers.

KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Physical fitness; Body cathexis

Turrentine, S. H. (1981). The relationship between body mass and self-concept in preadolescents and adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(06), 2313B, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the relationship between obesity and self-concept in preadolescents and adolescents. Data was collected from 85 sixth and 168 ninth graders on socioeconomic status, race, sex, body mass, self-concept and academic achievement. The preadolescents demonstrated significant negative correlations between greater than normal body mass and the self-concept dimensions of self acceptance, self security, social maturity, social confidence, and peer affiliation. Results also showed significant positive correlations between self-concept and academic achievement for both preadolescents and adolescents. The study provides evidence that preadolescent and adolescent obesity correlated strongly with poor self-concept and low academic achievement.

KEYWORDS: Body mass; Self-concept; Obesity

Underwood, C. (1970). The relationship between body type and body fat and personality factors of college women. Temple university.


KEYWORDS: Body type; Body fat

Ussher, J. M. (1989). The psychology of the female body. London: Routledge.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Psychophysiology

Van-Strien, T. (1985). Eating behavior, personality traits and body mass in women. Addictive Behaviors, 10(4), 333-343.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationships between scales of emotional eating, external eating, and restrained eating and body mass index (BMI) as well as the interrelationships between these 3 eating behavior components. Results indicate that significant relationships were found between BMI and emotional eating between BMI and external eating. No differences was observed between the eating behavior of latent obese and obese subjects, although these groups differed with regard to several personal traits.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body mass; Eating behavior

Wabitsch, M., Hauner, H., Bockmann, A., Parthon, W., Mayer, H., & Teller, W. (1992). The relationship between body fat distribution and weight loss in obese adolescent girls. International Journal of Obesity, 16(11), 905-911.

ABSTRACT: The study evaluated changes in body fat distribution as defined by several anthropometric criteria during a six week weight reduction program in 110 obese adolescent girls. The results indicate that the reduction in body weight was accompanied by a significant decrease in the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).

KEYWORDS: Body type; Obesity; Body fat; Body measurements

Waite, P. O. (1995). Exploring preadolescent attitudes toward obesity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard Graduate School of Education.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Obesity

Waldfogel, S. (1986). The body beautiful, the body hateful: Feminine body image and the culture of consumption in 20th century America. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Feminine beauty (aesthetics)

Wardle, J., Volz, C., & Golding, C. (1995). Social variation in attitudes to obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of The International Association for the Disorders, 19(8), 562-569.

ABSTRACT: Subjects made self-ratings of body shape, and choices of ideal body shape now and in adulthood, from a range of line drawings of figures varying in fatness, and, behavioral and personality stereotype judgments of illustrations of thin, average, and fat children were examined. Results indicated that girls selected thinner ideal figures than boys. Children demonstrated strongly negative attitudes to obesity, which were less favorable among those who were to obesity, which were less favorable among those who were older and from the higher social status schools. There were significantly social variations in attitudes to obesity which might be important in understanding variations in the prevalence of obesity and weight control practices.

KEYWORDS: Body shape; Body fat; Somatotype

Watson, L. A. (1991). Patterns of perceived hunger in healthy adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona.

ABSTRACT: The study examines the relationships among the sensations and cognition components of perceived hunger, and four contextual correlates: physicological, emotional, environmental, and established patterns. The sample was comprised of 359 healthy adults living in western Canada. Results show that overweight and obese individual's perception of sensations denoting hunger was significantly less intense than those experienced by normal weight individuals. Overweight individuals experienced cognitive struggle with significantly greater intensity than did underweight individuals.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity

Weiffenbach-Cook, J. A. (1992). Effects of body dissatisfaction and depression on body image distortion. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Dayton.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Obesity

Weltman, A., Weltman, J. Y., Hartman, M. L., Abbott, R. D., & D., R. A. (1994). Relationship between age, percentage body fat, fitness, and 24-hour growth hormone release in healthy young adults: Effects of gender. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78(3), 543.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body fat; Fitness

Whatley, J. E. (1991). Effect of exercise and diet on body composition and resting metabolic rate in obese females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University.


KEYWORDS: Body; Body composition; Exercise; Metabolism

Whitehouse, A. M., Freeman, C. L., & Annandale, A. (1986). Body size estimation in bulimia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 98-103.

ABSTRACT: The study examined body size perception of bullimics, using both whole-body and body-part methods. Subjects included 22 patients (mean 24.9 years) with bulimia and 20 normal controls (mean age 25.4 years). Two methods of body size estimation were used, a distorting television image method (DTIM) and the image-marking method (IMM). Results show that when estimating body size on the DTIM, the bulimics overestimated and the controls underestimated. On the IMM, a significant difference was found between the groups, with the bulimics overestimating body size and the controls being more accurate.

KEYWORDS: Body size

Wilkins, J. A., Boland, F. J., & Albinson, J. (1991). A comparison of male and female university athletes and non-athletes on eating disorder indices: Are athletes protected. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14(2), 129-143.

ABSTRACT: This study compared undergraduate athletes and non-athletes on measures of eating disorder, self-esteem, body image, and depression. Results found that athletes, who relied less on dieting behaviors for weight control, were likely to perceive themselves as overweight, possessed higher self-esteem, and reported greater confidence in the way in which their bodies perform.

KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Self-esteem; Body image; Appetite-disorders

Williams-Deane, M. (1989). The cultivation of thinness through modeling: The media, negative body image and eating disorder. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.


KEYWORDS: Body image

Willmuth, M. E., Leitenberg, H., & Rosen, J. C. (1988). A comparison of purging and nonpurging normal weight bullimics. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7(6), 825-835.

ABSTRACT: The study recruited 20 normal-weight purging bulimic (PB) women, 20 normal-weight nonpurging bulimic (NB) women, and 20 normal-weight controls (mean age 25.4 years) to complete an eating disorders inventory (EDI), measures of body distortion, and the Beck Depression Inventory. PBs showed greater anxiety about eating, disturbance on standardized measured of eating attitudes and disorders, body size distortion and desire to be thin, and disturbance on behavioral trait scales of the EDI. Subjects exhibited more anxiety about eating, disturbance on eating disorder questionnaires, depressive symptoms, and lower self-esteem. Results suggest that bulimia with purging was associated with a greater amount of psychopathology than bulimia without purging in normal-weight women.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Bulimics; Self-esteem

Willson, E. M. (1977). Body build-behavior relations: Female adult stereotypes of female children. Unpublished master's thesis, California State University, Hayward.


KEYWORDS: Body image

Wilmuth, M. E., Leitenberg, H., Rosen, J. C., Fondacaro, K. M., & Gross, J. (1985). Body size distortion in bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 4(1), 71-78.

ABSTRACT: Body size estimation was studied in normal weight women with bulimia nervosa and a matched group of normal controls in order to determine whether bulimia nervosa patients overestimate their body size and whether they do so to a greater degree than women who are not suffering from an eating disorder. Results indicate that body size distortion might be less extreme in patients with bulimia nervosa.

KEYWORDS: Body size; Weight reduction; Body measurements; Appetite disorders

Wishnatzky, T. (1986). A comparison of selected psychological factors in women who have maintained weight loss and women who have regained their lost weight. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(12), 4419B, University of San Francisco.

ABSTRACT: This study attempted to identify psychological differences between women who had maintained a substantial weight loss and women who had regained the weight they had lost. Sample of 60 women who had weighed at least 20% more than their desirable weight at the beginning of their weight-loss attempt and who had lost at least 10% of their body weight were recruited. Results suggest that factors such as attribution of success of one's ability and efforts, self-concept and the belief that one's health is under one's control are deserving of greater attention in the therapeutic milieu. Clinical weight-loss programs that focus on diet and exercise might improve their effectiveness with attention to empowering obese individuals and developing their overall sense of self-worth.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Weight loss

Wright, E. J. (1986). Sociocultural aspects of body image: Explorations of body size and weight problem perceptions in a southern rural community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to identify sociocultural factors that are associated with body size and weight problem perceptions in a community-based population. A total of 294 children and adults comprised the bi-racial research sample. Whitehead's Cultural Systems Paradigm and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism were used to conceptualize body image as a cultural phenomenon. Findings indicate that participants were able to accurately assess their body size, regardless of their actual weight status. Age was consistently associated with different body size perceptions. The study supports the notion that social environment influence body size perception. Results also indicate that respondents' perceptions of ideal and healthy body sizes are correlated with their view of significant others' expectations or perceptions.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Body size

Wurman, V. (1988). A feminist interpretation of college student bulimia. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 3(2-4), 167-180.

ABSTRACT: The study presents bulimia as a way young women negotiate the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental demands for more independence place gender-specific demands on young women. The primary identification of the female child with the mother, along with the familial and cultural expectations of women, encourage the development of traditionally feminine qualities. These relational qualities are developed at the expense of autonomous capacities. Coupled with the cultural overvaluation of women's appearance in general, and unrealistic expectations of slenderness in particular, the body becomes the focus of conflict, and eating problems often develop. Bulimia is viewed as an effort to make up for the lack of inner sources of self-esteem by living up to external ideals of perfection.

KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Feminist interpretation

Wylie, S. K. (1989). The psychosocial context of weight change. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(02), 464A, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University.

ABSTRACT: The study examined the possibility that psychosocial context of weight change can have a significant influence on that individual's ability and willingness to begin, continue, or ultimately maintain the weight loss achieved. Subjects consisted of 30 male and female volunteers who were interviewed in retrospect about their personal and social experiences throughout the process of weight changes. Participants were asked 55 questions regarding the interpersonal experiences which may have hindered or facilitated maintenance of weight loss. Participants who lost weight through extreme measures (i.e. liquid protein, stomach stapling) reported more stress and receipt of less social support than participants who used more "traditional" dieting methods. The study concluded that the American culture's view of weight loss as a positive and socially approved endeavor which has prevented researchers from identifying and exploring the difficulties and negative feelings a weight loss survivor might encounter in the process of losing weight.

KEYWORDS: Body weight

York, R. H. (1987). A new methodology to measure body/self-concept based on personal construct theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University.


KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception; Personal construct theory

Yotides, E. (1995). Weight regulation in male and female collegiate athletes: The relationship between knowledge, attitude and behavior. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.


KEYWORDS: Body weight; College athletes; Health and hygiene

Zinn, L. M. (1988). Risk factors for the development of restrained and bulimic eating patterns in adolescent females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auburn University.

ABSTRACT: The study focused upon adolescence as an important developmental period holding a number of risk factors for the development of restrained eating and bulimic behaviors. A model was proposed whereby physical, psychological, family, and social variables contribute to restrained eating and bulimic symptomatology in adolescent females. Subjects consisted of 494 females (11 to 18 years) from 6 area schools. Results supported previous findings that there is a high prevalence of dieting among adolescent females and a strong relationship between restraint and bulimic behaviors. Higher levels of restrained eating in girls was associated with higher past and present body weights, a discrepancy between actual and perceived ideal body weight, and poor body esteem. Low self-esteem was predictive of bulimic symptomatology, indicating that the evaluation of one's body may be a lesser focus in bulimia than more general negative self-evaluation. Bulimia was also related to low cohesion in the family and to the belief that thinness is an admired and important quality in self and others.

KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia; Adolescent