Psychological ramifications of body esteem/cathexis issues can lead
to intervention such as treatments and self-improvement strategies.
Boucher, L. S. (1986). Interests and other psychological correlates
of various actual and perceived body weights. Unpublished master's thesis,
University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body weight
Butters, J. W. (1987). Cognitive behavioral treatment of women's
body image dissatisfaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
ABSTRACT: Body image dissatisfaction is a problem that affects a substantial
minority of women and cuts across various diagnostic groups. College women
with a significant level of body image dissatisfaction were randomly assigned
to either a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program (n=15) or to a
waiting-list control group (n=16). At pretest, posttest, and seven-week
follow-up, multiple aspects of body image and other areas of psychosocial
functioning were assessed. Relative to the control condition, the CBT program
successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body image
cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical
fitness and sexuality.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Cognitive-behavioral treatment
Chodil, J. J. (1980). An investigation of the relation between
perceived body space, actual body space, body image boundary, and self-esteem.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-perception; Environmental psychology
Cogan, T. E. (1992). The relationship between self-esteem, body
image and dieting cognitions. Unpublished master's thesis, Northeast
Missouri State University.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-evaluation; Body image
Cohen-Tovee, E. M. (1993). Depressed mood and concern with weight
and shape in normal young women. International Journal of Eating Disorders,
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the possible role of depression in accentuating
the concerns with weight and shape found in two groups of normal female
population: a group of seventeen undergraduates, who placed a high personal
value on shape or weight, and a group of sixteen undergraduates, who placed
a low value on shape and weight.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Body weight; Depression emotion
Connors, M. E. (1984). Structured group treatment of normal weight
bulimic women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Depaul University.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of a structured group treatment
program for normal weight bulimic women. Subjects were 20 women who were
bingeing and purging at least once weekly received 12 two-hour sessions
of group treatment. Results indicated that a reduction in the number of
binge/purge episodes and an increase in the number of binge-free days were
associated with group treatment. Improvement on several self-report measures
were associated with group treatment, including increases in the self-esteem,
feelings of control, and sense of effectiveness. The data suggest that structured
group treatment constitutes an effective and efficient intervention for
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia
Cook, V. L. (1993). Self-esteem as a mediator of disturbance in
body image: An experimental analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Mississippi.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image
Cooper, P. J., & Taylor, M. J. (1988). Body image disturbance
in bulimia nervosa: Second Leeds Psychopathology Symposium, the psychopathology
of body image. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (Suppl 2), 32-36.
ABSTRACT: The study examined body image disturbance in bulimia nervosa and
found a significant tendency for bulimics to overestimate body size, but
that estimate differentials between bulimics and controls are not great
and show variability in both groups. Previous research done by the same
authors showed that the index of body size dissatisfaction was almost three
times as great for bulimics. Moreover, overestimation and dissatisfaction
were significantly related to low self-esteem, the level of neurotic symptoms,
and many of the subscales on an eating disorders inventory.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image; Bulimia nervosa
Coovert, D. L. (1987). Body size estimation: Generalization and
relationship to two measures of bulimic symptomatology in a sample of
female college students. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image
Cox, C. R. (1987). Risk factors in the development of bulimia.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Marquette University.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated factors which predipose adolescent females
toward bulimia. The study was aimed to test variables which pertain to three
major adolescent tasks, such as: securing a sex-role identity, coming to
terms with the maturing body, and establishing social interactions, in order
to determine to what extent these variables separately and as a combined
model contribute to the development of bulimia. A sample of 211 female high
school students (mean age=15.7 years) participated in the study. Results
show that sex-role identity did not contribute to the development of bulimic
tendencies. There was a strong relationship between negative self-esteem
and bulimic tendencies. Public Self-Consciousness affected bulimic tendencies.
Results also indicated that media influence significantly contributed to
the development of bulimic tendencies.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia
Davis, S. M. (1994). Women's attitudes toward their fathers: Are
these related to their body image and self-esteem. Unpublished master's
thesis, California State University, Long Beach.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image
Diedrick, P. A. (1989). Defining self-esteem, self-worth and self-efficacy
of women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(09), 4055B, University
ABSTRACT: The study investigated two dimensions of self-esteem (worth, as
perceptions of morality, and efficacy, as perceptions of instrumentality)
in 309 college females. Of the participants, 47 aspired to traditional female
careers, and 141 aspired to traditional male careers. The remainder were
planning careers that were neither traditional female nor traditional male,
or had not decided on a career. The study concluded that (a) self-efficacy
was the most relevant dimension of self-esteem for both groups, (b) self-worth
was also important to the self-esteem of woman who inspire to traditional
career, (c) there is little association between self-esteem and perceptions
of relationships with parents.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-worth; Self-efficacy
Eldredge, K., Wilson, G. T., & Whaley, A. (1990). Failure, self
evaluation, and feeling fat in women. International Journal of Eating
Disorders, 9(1), 37-50.
ABSTRACT: A study to test the hypothesis by R. Striegel-Moore et al. (1986)
that women who feel fat have self-schemas in which body weight is a central
component, and that any experience that gives rise to self-evaluation leads
to evaluation of body and weight. Although the results fail to support the
hypothesis, the subjects were indicated to describe their bodies in an evaluative
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-evaluation; Body image; Body weight; Adolescence
Endo, Y. (1992). Negative ideal self as a standard of self-esteem.
Japanese Journal of Psychology, 63(3), 214-217.
ABSTRACT: The study of how discrepancies between negative ideal self and
real self are associated with self-esteem were conducted using 110 normal
male and female Japanese undergraduates. Subjects were given a list of 50
positive and negative items in the domains of school, family, and other
interpersonal areas, lifestyle, personality, and body image that were related
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Self-concept
Fox, R., Burkhart, J. E., & Rotatori, A. F. (1983). Eating behavior
of obese and nonobese mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Mental
Deficiency, 87(5), 570-573.
ABSTRACT: A total of 14 obese and nonobese (mean age=30.3 years, mean IQ=50.6)
moderately mentally retarded adults were identified through use of body
weight and tricep skinfold thickness measures. Subjects were observed individually
in a sheltered workshop cafeteria during their lunch. A variety of eating
behavior measures indicated that the obese retarded subjects did not differ
from their nonobese peers in eating rate, total meal time, or caloric intake.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity
Fox, R. A., Haniotes, H., & Rotatori, A. (1984). A streamlined
weight loss program for moderately retarded adults in a sheltered workshop
setting. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 5(1), 69-79.
ABSTRACT: An abbreviated version of a behavioral weight loss (WL) program
for obese retarded adults was provided for 2 groups of 8 moderately retarded,
obese adults (mean ages: 29.5 and 27.5 years, IQs 42.1 and 46.3) working
in a sheltered workshop. The program involved 10 weeks of treatment, 5 weeks
of maintenance, and a 1-year follow-up check. No differences in WL or percent
WL were found between the buddy reinforcement group and the other treatment
group at the end of treatment or maintenance and during follow-up.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Weight loss program
Harper, L. R. (1984). Kent State University. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Kent State University.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the social and affective components of
body image in eating disorders. Subjects were women and were assessed on
a variety of self-description measures completed at their current weight,
and then, again, while imagining that they were at their self-determined
"ideal weight." Results indicated that bulimics and bingers perceived
themselves to be significantly more overweight than the normal controls
and reported a significantly greater drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction
than women without eating disorders. The results suggest that there is an
interplay between social influences and affective aspects of body image
disturbance in eating disorders. Results also suggested that while bulimics
can be seen as having distinct feelings about their actual weight, their
ideal weight, and value attached to attaining their ideal weight, the bingers
may be a very heterogeneous group of women on these dimensions.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Bulimia; Anorexia nervosa
Heatherton, T. F., Polivy, J., & Herman, C. P. (1991). Restraint,
weight loss, and variability of body weight. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
ABSTRACT: Restrained and unrestrained subjects (n=24) were weighed daily
for 6-wk period and 6-wk later in order to determine whether restraint or
relative body weight is the better predictor of weight variability. Results
show that exaggerated weight fluctuations are not a natural concomitant
of higher body weight but possibly the consequences of a cycle of dieting
and overeating, which seems to preclude actual weight loss.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Diets
Hetherington, M. M., & Burnett, L. (1994). Aging and the pursuit
of slimness: Dietary restraint and weight satisfaction in elderly women.
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(3), 391-400.
ABSTRACT: The study compared dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, eating
attitudes, and body satisfaction in women aged 60-78 and women aged 18-31.
Subjects completed the Eating Attitudes Test, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire,
the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results
indicated that dietary restraint and eating attitudes were similar across
age groups. Differences between current BW and desired BW were equivalent
for both age groups, but young subjects reported significantly greater dissatisfaction
with their bodies, scored higher on the BSQ, and experienced more disinhibited
eating than did elderly subjects.
KEYWORDS: Weight satisfaction; Body satisfaction; Dietary restraint; Elderly
McGovern, S. R. (1988). The value of thinness in females: Age
and sex-role factors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(07),
2866B, Emory University.
ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship of the thinness value to
age, sex-role, and self-esteem. Results show that even in nonclinical female
populations, preference for body thinness has become normative. Results
show that traditional and nontraditional women alike are equally committed
to thinness as a value. The findings suggest that while nonclinical females
valued thiness, they are less likely than eating-disordered females to use
it as a definitive measure of self-worth.
Mortenson, G. M. (1991). Health behaviors and attitudes of college
women classified according to body satisfaction and unrestrained eating
behaviors. Unpublished master's thesis, Michigan State University.
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine body satisfaction and unrestrained
eating in a sample of college women and compare this group to other college
women in terms of body weight, self-esteem, food group intake, eating patterns,
physical activity and roles of women. A questionnaire was administered to
249 college women and anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of
103 women were classified into one of three groups based on body dissatisfaction
or satisfaction, and restrained or unrestrained eating behaviors. The group
of satisfied/unrestrained had significantly lower BMI values, higher self-esteem,
consumed greater amount of meat, high fat foods and calorie dense snacks
and consumed lunch and supper more frequently than the dissatisfied/restrained
women. The findings suggest that further calorie restriction for dissatisfied/restrained
women might not be recommended.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight; Body satisfaction
Norris, D. L. (1984). The effects of mirror confrontation on self-estimation
of body dimensions in anorexia nervosa, bulimia and two control groups.
Psychological Medicine, 14(4), 835-842.
ABSTRACT: The study assessed self-estimations of four body widths before
and after a mirror confrontation procedure on four groups of young female
subjects: anorexic (13-20 years), bulimic (16-23 years), normal (13-20 years),
and emotionally disturbed (13-20 years). Results confirm that anorexic,
bulimic, and emotionally disturbed subjects overestimated body size. Normal
subjects were remarkably accurate. Mirror confrontation resulted in reduced
estimations in the majority of subjects, but significant differences were
found in the degree to which this occurred in the four groups, where anorexia
subjects showed the greatest change and normal subjects the least.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body dimension; Self-estimation
Phelps, L., Swift Johnston, L., Jimenez, D. P., Wilczenski, F. L., &
Andrea, R. K. (1993). Figure preference, body dissatisfaction, and body
distortion in adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(3),
KEYWORDS: Body; Adolescence
Quas, V. (1990). The lean body promise: Your future body, an owner's
manual. (1st ed.). Bend, Oregon: Synesis Press.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Reducing exercises; Dieting
Rolls, B. J., Fedoroff, I. C., & Guthrie, J. F. (1991). Gender
differences in eating behavior and body weight regulation. Health Psychology,
ABSTRACT: Research indicates that gender differences in food intake and
selection first appear in adolescence. Men consume more calories than women.
However, women experience more food-related conflict than men in that they
like fattening foods but perceive they should not eat them. Pressures to
be thin are present in early adolescence, as noted by dieting behavior in
KEYWORDS: Food intake; Food Preferences; Body weight
Rudnick, L. J. (1985). An educational approach for enhancing self-esteem
through body awareness and body movement. Dissertation Abstracts International,
45(07), 1979A, The Fielding Institute.
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to develop and investigate an educational
body awareness and creative body movement program with the hope of gaining
insights into its possible effectiveness in increasing self-esteem. Findings
suggest that the inclusion of body awareness and creative body movement
in a classroom experience stimulate (a) direct communication through physical
contact with oneself and others, (b) active involvement, (c) self-control.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body awareness; Body movement
Sabatine, J. A. (1995). Understanding cardiorespiratory fitness,
body image, and self-esteem in adolescent female athletes. Unpublished
master's thesis, Springfield College.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Physical fitness; Self-esteem in adolescence; Cardiopulmonary
Schellinger, M. M. (1992). Relationship of perceived and objective
weight status to body image and perceived interference of social relationships
in the adolescent population: A research study. Unpublished master's
thesis, La Salle University.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Body weight
Schlamowitz, K. E. (1984). Body building: Masculine protest or
the expression of a normal personality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
The University of Arizona.
ABSTRACT: A sample of 37 competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders, along
with 20 weight-training comparison subjects were evaluated with respect
to their personality characteristics, sex-role identity, and degree of body
satisfaction. The study suggests that competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders,
as well as men who incorporate weight-training into an exercise routine,
demonstrate no remarkable or pathological personality characteristics. Neither
do they differ significantly from the average population in terms of sex-role
identification or the degree to which they are satisfied with their bodies.
KEYWORDS: Body weight
Schulz, L. E. (1961). Relationships between body image and physical
performance in adolescent girls. Unpublished master's thesis, University
of Maryland, College Park.
KEYWORDS: Body image
Shaffer, J. N. (1985). Women, body image, and self-esteem: The
study of a new method of treatment; a project based upon an independent
investigation. Unpublished master's thesis, Smith College for Social Work.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Body image
Shontz, F. C. (1969). Perceptual and cognitive aspects of body
experience. New York: Academic Press.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-concept
Silberstein, L. R., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Timko, C., & Rodin, J.
(1988). Behavioral and psychological implications of body dissatisfaction:
Do men and women differ. Sex Roles, 19(3-4), 219-232.
ABSTRACT: Relationships of body satisfaction, self-esteem, dieting, and
exercise were examined in 45 female and 47 male undergraduates. Findings
show that males and females did not differ in degree of body dissatisfaction
as assessed by measure of body esteem, body size drawings, and measures
of weight dissatisfaction. Unlike women, men were as likely to want to be
heavier as thinner. Women reported exercising for weight control more than
men, and exercising for weight control was associated with disregulated
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body satisfaction; Self-esteem
Skello, T. A. (1995). A qualitative study on body image and diet
among women. Unpublished master's thesis, Ball State University.
KEYWORDS: Body image
Slaughter, M., Christ, C., Boileau, R., & Stillman, R. (1993).
Differences in the fat-free body to height relationship among young, older
and mature adults. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 71, 187-187.
KEYWORDS: Body; Height; Age; Fat
Smith, C. I. (1990). Causal attribution, self-efficacy, and body
image as perceived and described by obese and over weight persons. Unpublished
master's thesis, University of South Carolina.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity
Smith, M. A. (1993). The effects of exercise on body image.
Unpublished master's thesis, Appalachian State University.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise
Spitzer, L., & Rodin, J. (1981). Human eating behavior: A critical
review of studies in normal weight and overweight individuals. Appetite,
ABSTRACT: The study evaluates numereous research of eating behavior conducted
since 1968 that use amount eaten, meal duration, rate of eating, eating
style, verbal report, and salivation as dependent variables. Results indicated
that: (1) Palatability is the most consistent variable influencing amount
eaten and producing overweight-normal weight differences in amount eaten,
(2) Deprivation, palatability, and overweight-normal weight differences
in differentially affect meal duration when the impact of amount eaten is
held constant, (3) differences in rate over the course of a meal may differentially
reflect hunger (rapid eating at onset) and satiety (slowing to termination),
(4) measures of eating style have not yielded much information since they
have generally not been used in conceptually meaningful ways, (5) Verbal
reports of hunger and palatability relate to state of short-term deprivation
but correlate poorly with measure of amount eaten, perhaps because they
are each measuring different processes, (6) Salivation in response to a
food stimulus increases with deprivation and palatability.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Eating behavior
Stalling, R. B., & Miller, A. (1981). Effect of fictitious food
ratings on eating behavior of obese and normal people. Journal of Obesity
and Weight Regulation, 1(2), 105-110.
ABSTRACT: The study examined whether the external cues to which the obese
are sensitive include cognitive or social cues, such as other people's opinions.
Subjects consisted of 60 overweight, normal weight, and underweight undergraduates
and were served 3 "types" of doughnuts (cut in quarters); then,
they were asked to rate the taste and told to eat as much as they wished.
Results show that all 3 weight groups, not just the obese, were influenced
by the external cue. All groups rated higher and ate more of the doughnuts
ostensibly preferred by others.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Eating behavior
Steinberg, C. L., & Birk, J. M. (1983). Weight and compliance:
Male-female differences. Journal of General Psychology, 109(1), 95-102.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the willingness of 60 male and 60 female subjects
(18-23 years) ov varying weights to comply with requests for a favor made
by 4 confederates-2 males (1 overweight, 1 normal weight) and 2 females
(1 overweight, 1 normal weight). Both male and female subjects were less
compliant to requests from an overweight than a normal weight confederate.
Overweight subjects were more compliant to normal weight opposite-sex confederates
than to overweight opposite-sex confederates.
KEYWORDS: Body weight
Stonebraker, P. M. (1988). Biocultural influences on male and
female body images, eating and activity behaviors. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Oregon.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Mind and body; Eating disorders
Storz, N. S. (1982). Body image of obese adolescent girls in a high
school and clinical setting. Adolescence, 17(67), 667-672.
ABSTRACT: The study compared 27 obese females (12-17 years) with 20 age-matched
subjects seeking help for their obesity in hospital-affiliated program for
weight reduction. Subjects completed a descriptive data questionnaire and
a human figure drawing test. Drawings were judged according to Witkin's
Articulation of Body Concept Scale. Subjects showed a significantly greater
difference in their selection of outline drawings of the female figure perceived
to represent their actual as compared to ideal body sizes. No significant
difference was found in articulation or body concept as revealed in human
figure drawings; however, the difference between the mean scores of the
2 groups in articulation of body concept and negative adjectives used to
describe present appearance approach significance in a t-test analysis.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Obesity; Adolescent
Sunday, S. R., Halmi, K. A., Werdann, L., & Levey, C. (1992).
Comparison of body size estimation and eating disorder inventory scores
in anorexia and bulimia patients with obese, and restrained controls. International
Journal of Eating Disorders, 11(2), 133-149.
ABSTRACT: Psychological attributes and body size estimation were compared
in four subgroups of anorexia and bulimia patients, an obese group, an unrestrained
control group, and a restrained control group. All anorexia and bulimia
subgroups overestimated the size of their hips and their body depth relative
to the two control groups and obese group. There were no differences in
body size estimation between the subgroups of anorexia and bulimia patients.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image; Body weight
Sutton, R. (1988). Body worry. (Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Physical fitness; Health
Taylor, M. J., & Cooper, P. J. (1992). An experimental study
of the effect of mood on body size perception. Behavior Research and
Therapy, 30(1), 53-58.
ABSTRACT: Two groups of female students were asked to estimate their size
and indicate their degree of dissatisfaction with their body size before
and after the induction of a negative or positive mood state. The first
group consisted of 36 subjects (mean age 29 yrs), who received the positive
induced mood state, had less disturbances in body size than the second group
of 37 subjects (mean age 19.9 yrs) who had the low mood state. Among subjects
who received the negative mood dissatisfaction with their body size, the
induction of low mood led to greater disturbances in body size perception
in the form of overestimating their body size significantly more and a tendency
toward greater dissatisfaction with their body size.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Body image
Thatcher, J. (1992). Fashion, fetishism, female body modification
and related health issues. Unpublished master's thesis, California State
KEYWORDS: Body image; Fashion; Eating disorders
Thelen, T. H., & Alumbaugh, R. V. (1983). Relative body weight
as a factor in the decision to abort. Psychological Reports, 52(3),
ABSTRACT: Abortion referral data of 692 pregnant women (13-44 years) visiting
a large urban planned parenthood clinic were analyzed to determine whether
relative weight, as measured by an adiposity index, as well as other variables
were associated with a decision to terminate or not terminate a pregnancy.
In analyses of all subjects and of a subsample consisting only of those
in the early stages of pregnancy, increased relative weight was associated
with a decrease in the likelihood of abortion. Reasons for this relationship
are explored with respect to loneliness, employment, initiative, and threat
to physical appearance. The study also suggested that if heavier women are
less likely to terminate their pregnancies and are having collectively more
children than lighter women, increased relative body weight in human can
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Abortion
Theron, W. H., Nel, E. M., & Lubbe, A. J. (1991). Relationship
between body image and self-consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
73(3, Pt 1), 979-983.
ABSTRACT: The study assessed whether there was a relation between body image
and self-consciousness and whether there would be any sex differences on
measures of these two concepts. Participants were 56 male and 211 female
Afrikaans and English-speaking undergraduates who completed a physical self-concept
scale and a self-consciousness scale, negative correlations emerged between
body image and self-concept and social anxiety, respectively. Private and
public self-consciousness correlated positively with each other and with
social anxiety. Men and women differed significantly only on social anxiety,
with higher social anxiety in women.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception
Thomas, R. C. (1992). The relationships among bulimia nervosa,
self-esteem and persuasibility. Dissertation Abstracts International,
53(05), 2556B, United States International University.
ABSTRACT: The study sought to clarify the role of cultural factors in the
development of bulimia nervosa, specifically examined were the effects of
current societal dictates regarding slimness and fitness for women. Bulimic
and nonbulimic women viewed a video tape containing an amalgamation of idealized
images of female beauty, excerpted from beauty and fitness self-help videotypes.
Findings supported the hypothesis, indicating that level of bulimic severity
was significantly predictive of persuasibility. Support was also found for
the consistent clinical and research observation that bulimic women suffer
from low self-esteem.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Eating disorders
Thompson, J. K. (1990). Body image disturbance: Assessment and
treatment. New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.
ABSTRACT: This book provides a broad overview of prevalence data and associated
features of body image dysfunction. However, the major purpose of this book
is to provide a methodologies for various aspects of body image disturbance.
The author presents an empirically based approach to body image disturbance,
which focuses on cognitive-behavioral methods of assessment and treatment
with a variety of populations.
KEYWORDS: Body image ; Body weight; self-perception
Tiggemann, M., Winefield, H. R., & Winefield, A. H. (1994). Gender
differences in the psychological correlates of body-weight in young adults.
Psychology and Health, 9(5), 345-351.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the activity and psychological correlates
of body weight and attitudes in a sample of young adults. Body mass indexes
were calculated for 235 men and 248 women (aged 21-23 yrs). Women tended
to view themselves as more overweight than did men, regardless of their
true weight. This trend has consequences for women's health (e.g. eating
disorders, unnecessary diets) and self-esteem.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Health attitudes; Personality correlates; Body mass
Todyz, S. W. (1984). Body shape perception and its disturbance in
anorexia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 167-171.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the perception of body shape among 15 female
patients (mean age 19.06 years) with anorexia nervosa and 15 age-matched
controls (mean age 20.75 years) to evaluate subjects' judgments of perceived
present shape (subjective image), ideal shape, least desired shape, and
the expected shape of a normal-weight model. Subjects showed a greater tendency
tendency to over-and underestimate their present body shape than did controls.
Subjects' desired body shape was significantly thinner than that of controls,
as was their estimation of what constitutes a normal body shape. It is asserted
that not all anorexia nervosa patients overestimate their body weight. However,
subjects with anorexia nervosa had a marked misperception as to what constitutes
a normal body weight. It is suggested that alteration of this misperception
may have important implications for treatment.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body shape
Towle, S. M. (1966). The relation between anxiety, body weight, and
weight change. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity; Anxiety
Tucker, L. A., & Mortell, R. (1993). Comparison of the effects
of walking and weight training programs on body image in middle-aged women:
An experimental study. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(1),
ABSTRACT: The study compared the effects of a resistive training intervention
and an exercise walking program on body image in 60 sedentary, nonobese
women (aged 35-49 years), and developed 2 multivariate models to explain
the improvements. Assessments included the Body Cathexis Scale for body
image, a 1-mile walk for cardiovascular endurance, and standard weight training
procedures for muscular strength. Lifters showed greater muscular strength
than walkers; walkers displayed greater cardiorespiratory endurance than
the lifters. Lifters also improved significantly more in body image than
did the walkers.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Exercise; Physical fitness; Body cathexis
Turrentine, S. H. (1981). The relationship between body mass and
self-concept in preadolescents and adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 42(06), 2313B, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
ABSTRACT: The study investigated the relationship between obesity and self-concept
in preadolescents and adolescents. Data was collected from 85 sixth and
168 ninth graders on socioeconomic status, race, sex, body mass, self-concept
and academic achievement. The preadolescents demonstrated significant negative
correlations between greater than normal body mass and the self-concept
dimensions of self acceptance, self security, social maturity, social confidence,
and peer affiliation. Results also showed significant positive correlations
between self-concept and academic achievement for both preadolescents and
adolescents. The study provides evidence that preadolescent and adolescent
obesity correlated strongly with poor self-concept and low academic achievement.
KEYWORDS: Body mass; Self-concept; Obesity
Underwood, C. (1970). The relationship between body type and body
fat and personality factors of college women. Temple university.
KEYWORDS: Body type; Body fat
Ussher, J. M. (1989). The psychology of the female body. London:
KEYWORDS: Body image; Psychophysiology
Van-Strien, T. (1985). Eating behavior, personality traits and body
mass in women. Addictive Behaviors, 10(4), 333-343.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the relationships between scales of emotional
eating, external eating, and restrained eating and body mass index (BMI)
as well as the interrelationships between these 3 eating behavior components.
Results indicate that significant relationships were found between BMI and
emotional eating between BMI and external eating. No differences was observed
between the eating behavior of latent obese and obese subjects, although
these groups differed with regard to several personal traits.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body mass; Eating behavior
Wabitsch, M., Hauner, H., Bockmann, A., Parthon, W., Mayer, H., &
Teller, W. (1992). The relationship between body fat distribution and
weight loss in obese adolescent girls. International Journal of Obesity,
ABSTRACT: The study evaluated changes in body fat distribution as defined
by several anthropometric criteria during a six week weight reduction program
in 110 obese adolescent girls. The results indicate that the reduction in
body weight was accompanied by a significant decrease in the waist-to-hip
KEYWORDS: Body type; Obesity; Body fat; Body measurements
Waite, P. O. (1995). Exploring preadolescent attitudes toward
obesity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard Graduate School
KEYWORDS: Body image; Obesity
Waldfogel, S. (1986). The body beautiful, the body hateful: Feminine
body image and the culture of consumption in 20th century America. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Feminine beauty (aesthetics)
Wardle, J., Volz, C., & Golding, C. (1995). Social variation
in attitudes to obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity
and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of The International Association
for the Disorders, 19(8), 562-569.
ABSTRACT: Subjects made self-ratings of body shape, and choices of ideal
body shape now and in adulthood, from a range of line drawings of figures
varying in fatness, and, behavioral and personality stereotype judgments
of illustrations of thin, average, and fat children were examined. Results
indicated that girls selected thinner ideal figures than boys. Children
demonstrated strongly negative attitudes to obesity, which were less favorable
among those who were to obesity, which were less favorable among those who
were older and from the higher social status schools. There were significantly
social variations in attitudes to obesity which might be important in understanding
variations in the prevalence of obesity and weight control practices.
KEYWORDS: Body shape; Body fat; Somatotype
Watson, L. A. (1991). Patterns of perceived hunger in healthy
adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona.
ABSTRACT: The study examines the relationships among the sensations and
cognition components of perceived hunger, and four contextual correlates:
physicological, emotional, environmental, and established patterns. The
sample was comprised of 359 healthy adults living in western Canada. Results
show that overweight and obese individual's perception of sensations denoting
hunger was significantly less intense than those experienced by normal weight
individuals. Overweight individuals experienced cognitive struggle with
significantly greater intensity than did underweight individuals.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Obesity
Weiffenbach-Cook, J. A. (1992). Effects of body dissatisfaction
and depression on body image distortion. Unpublished master's thesis,
University of Dayton.
KEYWORDS: Body image; Obesity
Weltman, A., Weltman, J. Y., Hartman, M. L., Abbott, R. D., & D.,
R. A. (1994). Relationship between age, percentage body fat, fitness,
and 24-hour growth hormone release in healthy young adults: Effects of gender.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78(3), 543.
KEYWORDS: Body; Body fat; Fitness
Whatley, J. E. (1991). Effect of exercise and diet on body composition
and resting metabolic rate in obese females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
KEYWORDS: Body; Body composition; Exercise; Metabolism
Whitehouse, A. M., Freeman, C. L., & Annandale, A. (1986). Body
size estimation in bulimia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 98-103.
ABSTRACT: The study examined body size perception of bullimics, using both
whole-body and body-part methods. Subjects included 22 patients (mean 24.9
years) with bulimia and 20 normal controls (mean age 25.4 years). Two methods
of body size estimation were used, a distorting television image method
(DTIM) and the image-marking method (IMM). Results show that when estimating
body size on the DTIM, the bulimics overestimated and the controls underestimated.
On the IMM, a significant difference was found between the groups, with
the bulimics overestimating body size and the controls being more accurate.
KEYWORDS: Body size
Wilkins, J. A., Boland, F. J., & Albinson, J. (1991). A comparison
of male and female university athletes and non-athletes on eating disorder
indices: Are athletes protected. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14(2),
ABSTRACT: This study compared undergraduate athletes and non-athletes on
measures of eating disorder, self-esteem, body image, and depression. Results
found that athletes, who relied less on dieting behaviors for weight control,
were likely to perceive themselves as overweight, possessed higher self-esteem,
and reported greater confidence in the way in which their bodies perform.
KEYWORDS: Body esteem; Self-esteem; Body image; Appetite-disorders
Williams-Deane, M. (1989). The cultivation of thinness through
modeling: The media, negative body image and eating disorder. Unpublished
master's thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
KEYWORDS: Body image
Willmuth, M. E., Leitenberg, H., & Rosen, J. C. (1988). A comparison
of purging and nonpurging normal weight bullimics. International Journal
of Eating Disorders, 7(6), 825-835.
ABSTRACT: The study recruited 20 normal-weight purging bulimic (PB) women,
20 normal-weight nonpurging bulimic (NB) women, and 20 normal-weight controls
(mean age 25.4 years) to complete an eating disorders inventory (EDI), measures
of body distortion, and the Beck Depression Inventory. PBs showed greater
anxiety about eating, disturbance on standardized measured of eating attitudes
and disorders, body size distortion and desire to be thin, and disturbance
on behavioral trait scales of the EDI. Subjects exhibited more anxiety about
eating, disturbance on eating disorder questionnaires, depressive symptoms,
and lower self-esteem. Results suggest that bulimia with purging was associated
with a greater amount of psychopathology than bulimia without purging in
KEYWORDS: Body size; Bulimics; Self-esteem
Willson, E. M. (1977). Body build-behavior relations: Female adult
stereotypes of female children. Unpublished master's thesis, California
State University, Hayward.
KEYWORDS: Body image
Wilmuth, M. E., Leitenberg, H., Rosen, J. C., Fondacaro, K. M., &
Gross, J. (1985). Body size distortion in bulimia nervosa. International
Journal of Eating Disorders, 4(1), 71-78.
ABSTRACT: Body size estimation was studied in normal weight women with bulimia
nervosa and a matched group of normal controls in order to determine whether
bulimia nervosa patients overestimate their body size and whether they do
so to a greater degree than women who are not suffering from an eating disorder.
Results indicate that body size distortion might be less extreme in patients
with bulimia nervosa.
KEYWORDS: Body size; Weight reduction; Body measurements; Appetite disorders
Wishnatzky, T. (1986). A comparison of selected psychological
factors in women who have maintained weight loss and women who have
regained their lost weight. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(12),
4419B, University of San Francisco.
ABSTRACT: This study attempted to identify psychological differences between
women who had maintained a substantial weight loss and women who had regained
the weight they had lost. Sample of 60 women who had weighed at least 20%
more than their desirable weight at the beginning of their weight-loss attempt
and who had lost at least 10% of their body weight were recruited. Results
suggest that factors such as attribution of success of one's ability and
efforts, self-concept and the belief that one's health is under one's control
are deserving of greater attention in the therapeutic milieu. Clinical weight-loss
programs that focus on diet and exercise might improve their effectiveness
with attention to empowering obese individuals and developing their overall
sense of self-worth.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Weight loss
Wright, E. J. (1986). Sociocultural aspects of body image: Explorations
of body size and weight problem perceptions in a southern rural community.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to identify sociocultural factors
that are associated with body size and weight problem perceptions in a community-based
population. A total of 294 children and adults comprised the bi-racial research
sample. Whitehead's Cultural Systems Paradigm and the Theory of Symbolic
Interactionism were used to conceptualize body image as a cultural phenomenon.
Findings indicate that participants were able to accurately assess their
body size, regardless of their actual weight status. Age was consistently
associated with different body size perceptions. The study supports the
notion that social environment influence body size perception. Results also
indicate that respondents' perceptions of ideal and healthy body sizes are
correlated with their view of significant others' expectations or perceptions.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Body image; Body size
Wurman, V. (1988). A feminist interpretation of college student bulimia.
Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 3(2-4), 167-180.
ABSTRACT: The study presents bulimia as a way young women negotiate the
transition from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental demands for more
independence place gender-specific demands on young women. The primary identification
of the female child with the mother, along with the familial and cultural
expectations of women, encourage the development of traditionally feminine
qualities. These relational qualities are developed at the expense of autonomous
capacities. Coupled with the cultural overvaluation of women's appearance
in general, and unrealistic expectations of slenderness in particular, the
body becomes the focus of conflict, and eating problems often develop. Bulimia
is viewed as an effort to make up for the lack of inner sources of self-esteem
by living up to external ideals of perfection.
KEYWORDS: Self-esteem; Feminist interpretation
Wylie, S. K. (1989). The psychosocial context of weight change.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(02), 464A, Peabody College For
Teachers of Vanderbilt University.
ABSTRACT: The study examined the possibility that psychosocial context of
weight change can have a significant influence on that individual's ability
and willingness to begin, continue, or ultimately maintain the weight loss
achieved. Subjects consisted of 30 male and female volunteers who were interviewed
in retrospect about their personal and social experiences throughout the
process of weight changes. Participants were asked 55 questions regarding
the interpersonal experiences which may have hindered or facilitated maintenance
of weight loss. Participants who lost weight through extreme measures (i.e.
liquid protein, stomach stapling) reported more stress and receipt of less
social support than participants who used more "traditional" dieting
methods. The study concluded that the American culture's view of weight
loss as a positive and socially approved endeavor which has prevented researchers
from identifying and exploring the difficulties and negative feelings a
weight loss survivor might encounter in the process of losing weight.
KEYWORDS: Body weight
York, R. H. (1987). A new methodology to measure body/self-concept
based on personal construct theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
KEYWORDS: Body image; Self-perception; Personal construct theory
Yotides, E. (1995). Weight regulation in male and female collegiate
athletes: The relationship between knowledge, attitude and behavior.
Unpublished master's thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; College athletes; Health and hygiene
Zinn, L. M. (1988). Risk factors for the development of restrained
and bulimic eating patterns in adolescent females. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Auburn University.
ABSTRACT: The study focused upon adolescence as an important developmental
period holding a number of risk factors for the development of restrained
eating and bulimic behaviors. A model was proposed whereby physical, psychological,
family, and social variables contribute to restrained eating and bulimic
symptomatology in adolescent females. Subjects consisted of 494 females
(11 to 18 years) from 6 area schools. Results supported previous findings
that there is a high prevalence of dieting among adolescent females and
a strong relationship between restraint and bulimic behaviors. Higher levels
of restrained eating in girls was associated with higher past and present
body weights, a discrepancy between actual and perceived ideal body weight,
and poor body esteem. Low self-esteem was predictive of bulimic symptomatology,
indicating that the evaluation of one's body may be a lesser focus in bulimia
than more general negative self-evaluation. Bulimia was also related to
low cohesion in the family and to the belief that thinness is an admired
and important quality in self and others.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Bulimia; Adolescent