Frequently Asked Questions
|Crane died very
young, before his 29th birthday. What caused his death?
Crane died of tuberculosis, a common cause of death before antibiotics
and other drugs were discovered to treat the disease. He had had
the disease for a long time. According to The Crane Log, he
suffered a lung hemorrhage on 29 December 1899 but kept writing to
pay the bills throughout the spring of 1900. He had more
hemorrhages on March 31st, and by April 14, the Academy, a journal,
noted that Crane was "lying seriously ill at the mediaeval house
in Sussex, Brede Place, where he has been living for the past two
years." At the end of May, 1900, Cora Crane takes Stephen to Badenweiler,
Baden, for treatment, in a last-ditch effort to save his life. Crane
continues to dictate portions of his last novel, The O'Ruddy,
but dies on June 5, 1900.
Did Stephen Crane have a middle name? Who
were his brothers and sisters?
Crane had no middle name. Here is some information
about his brothers and sisters:
Crane was the 14th and last child of Jonathan Townley Crane and
Mary Helen (Peck) Crane ( Crane Log 1). According to The Crane
Log , "Only 8 of the 13 children who preceded Stephen are alive
at the time of his birth" (1). His siblings are as follows (all
references are from The Crane Log or from Thomas Gullason's Stephen
Crane's Literary Family ) :
William Howe Crane (1854-1926) practiced law in Port Jervis, N.
Y. and later retired to California. Gullason: "William was at Wesleyan
University for a year, then New York University, before graduating
from Albany Law School" (2).
Jonathan Townley Crane, Jr. (pronounced "Toonley") (1858-1908) "died
indigent in the local hospital" in Binghamton, N. Y. (xxxii)
Agnes Elizabeth Crane, a surrogate mother to Crane and a schoolteacher,
d. 10 June 1884 at age 28 of "cerebrospinal meningitis in the home
of her brother Edmund at Rutherford, New Jersey" (32).
Wilbur Fiske Crane (1859-1918) Gullason: "Wilbur attended the
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia College from 1881-1886" (2).
d. in a small town in Georgia.
Edmund Crane (450). More information from Stanley Wertheim (Queries
Edmund Bryan Crane (1857-1922) was the brother with whom Stephen had the closest
relationship, and his residences at Lake View, New Jersey, and Hartwood, New
York, were as near to what can be called homes that Crane had in the United
States. After the death of Jonathan Townley Crane, Stephen lived for a time
with Bryan, then a teacher in Sussex County, New Jersey. When their mother died,
Edmund became Stephen's guardian. Much of The Red Badge of Courage was
written in Edmund's house at Lake View, and the name of Edmund's wife, Mary
L. Fleming, was probably the source for the surname of the protagonist of the
Mary Helen Crane Murray-Hamilton (451). Gullason: "Mary Helen
("Nellie") graduated from Pennington Seminary and Female Collegiate
Institute (where the Reverend Mr. Crane had served for nine years
as its principal)" (1).
George Crane. George, Wilbur, William, Edmund, and Mary Helen
were present at Stephen Crane's funeral service at the Central
Metropolitan Temple on 28 June 1900 (451).
Luther P. Crane d. 26 September 1886 in a fall beneath the wheels
of a moving train (35). Gullason: "Three brothers, Luther, Wilbur,
and Edmund (one alumni directory lists William instead of Edmund),
along wth Agnes, went on to Centenary Collegiate Institute (now
Centenary College)" (1).
|I think I may be related to Stephen Crane. Where can I find information about Crane's genealogy?
An issue of the journal Stephen Crane Studies 4.1 (1995) entitled "Stephen Crane's Family Heritage" is devoted to an exhaustive study of Crane family genealogy by Robert K. Crane, grandson of Stephen's brother Wilbur. This journal may be found in research libraries or write Professor Paul Sorrentino, English Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060.
--Stanley Wertheim, 3/25/06
Note: If you don't have access to a research library or to Interlibrary Loan, you can also order back issues of Stephen Crane Studies directly by using the mail-in form at this site. (http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/scsform.htm)
--Donna Campbell, 3/25/06
|Who holds the copyright on Stephen Crane's poems?
All of Crane's writings are in the common domain and may be reprinted or quoted without permission. There is a technical caveat that if you are using a specific edition, the text of that edition my be copyright, so that it would be prudent to write a certified letter to the publisher requesting permission and to cite that edition as your source if your work is published.
|Did Crane base The Red Badge of Courage on
his experiences in the Civil War?
No, Crane was born in 1871, six years after the
war ended. For more details, see the Queries 2004 page.
|Where can I get a copy of "Stephen Crane's Own Story," the account Crane published about the sinking of the Commodore that inspired "The Open Boat" ?
You can find a copy at this link: http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/lewiss/CraneStory.htm
have to write a paper on "The Open Boat" and naturalism (or "The
Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" and color imagery, or another topic).
Can you help me?
You can find some help in the Student
Queries section of this site. The questions and references
there should help you with your paper. Also, you can search
the bibliographies for secondary sources that would be relevant
to your topic. Some individual bibliographies, such as the
one on "The Blue Hotel," are also available. Your professor
or teacher will be the best source of help for specific questions
about your paper. Sorry--we are not able to respond individually. Unique
or specific queries are posted to the Student Queries page, where
members of the Crane Society may respond to them.
|I'm writing a paper about a certain story
of Crane's. Why don't you have anything about my story at this
The Crane Society site depends on volunteer
contributions from scholars for its content. It is primarily a
site for Crane scholars but also tries to help students by providing
information. It is not a homework hotline and cannot provide such
information on demand.
We don't have a paid staff, and we are not a library,
which is your best source of information about Crane and criticism
on his works. For good information on Crane, visit your local library
and check out some of the many excellent books on Crane. The bibliographies should
help you, as will the extensive answers given on our Queries
and Student queries pages. You can also look at the answers to
the next question for suggestions about finding more Crane resources
| Where can I find
Crane criticism online?
|The best criticism on Crane is published in books and peer-reviewed
journals rather than online. Many peer-reviewed journals are available
online, however, through services such as ProQuest or Project Muse. If
you're a college or university student, or if you live near a college
or university, the university library will be your best source for
criticism on Crane. Most libraries will have several of the
journals and books listed in the Crane Bibliographies.
Many libraries will have access to FirstSearch, which includes
the MLA Bibliography, and they will also have one or more
of the following full-text databases. You can go to your local
university library's home page and see which of these resources
are available to you. However, these resources may be available
only on-campus or to registered students and faculty.
Many high schools and public libraries also have access to databases (such as
the Gale databases) that have literary criticism.
Project Muse (Journals from
Johns Hopkins University Press)(muse.jhu.edu)
UMI ProQuest Direct
JStor (www.jstor.org): JStor has back issues of such journals as American
You can find articles and books on your topic by searching the
bibliographies at the Crane Society site or by using the MLA
Bibliography. You will also find some short bibliographies
on individual stories in the Queries
and Student Queries pages, and you can search
this site for other references.
|I don't live near a
library, and I'm not a student so I can't get access to the articles
this way. Isn't there anything else available? (top)
Since Northernlight no longer has articles online, FindArticles is
a good bet; it offers some of the same full-text articles but does
not charge for them.
Amazon.com has also started offering articles from scholarly journals,
at about $5.95 apiece.
If you anticipate being away from a library for a longer period
of time and can afford it, you might try Questia.com. Questia.com has
scholarly books and some articles available. The site offers
a free 30-day trial subscription and after that costs about $20
|I have an old copy of Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. Can you tell me what it's worth?
To find the value of old books, contact your local bookseller or check the prices for comparable rare and used books on ebay.com, amazon.com, abebooks.com, www.bookfinder.com, or other such sites. You can also contact the Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America for information about finding the value of a book.
|Did Crane write a poem with
these lines? (or) Did Crane ever write a story called "---"?
If you want to find a particular poem, story, or phrase, try the Search feature
first, for it may give you an immediate answer. The Search feature
searches the works and titles available at the Crane Society site.
If you don't find what you're looking for, please use the Queries
or Student Queries form so that your question can be posted to
|How do I cite a page at the Stephen Crane Society site?
depends on the style your instructor prefers (MLA, Chicago, Turabian),
Hacker's site and a site
from the Duke University libraries provide some good examples.
Hacker's site also includes examples of in-text citation.
The MLA site also has good examples at http://www.mla.org/publications/style/style_faq/style_faq4.
Please note that although your Works Cited page should use hanging
indents (i.e., indent the second line five spaces more than the
first line), this can't be done easily on a web page. Also, the
web address URL may be on a separate line since the space here
is limited, but it should not be (or does not have to be) on a
separate line in your document. Adjust your formatting accordingly.
None of the examples at MLA or the other sites listed exactly
addresses the materials at this site, so here are some possibilities.
1. For quoting from replies on the Queries
and Student Queries pages.
This is adapted from the Web
Forum Posting example at the Hacker site.
Author Lastname, Author Firstname. "Reply to Question." Online
posting. Date of reply. The
Stephen Crane Society. Date you accessed the page. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/squeries02.htm
[or whatever the web address is]>.
Wertheim, Stanley. "Reply to 'Meaning of Wind-Demon.'" Online
posting. 12 Feb. 2005. The
Stephen Crane Society. 12 November 2005. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/squeries05.htm>
2. For quoting information provided on a
specific page. (Note:
Sources of information are given on individual pages. If the information
is from The Crane Log or another source, you should look
up the original source.)
This is adapted from the personal
site example on the MLA site, although it can't fit the model
Author lastname, author firstname. "Page title." Date
of the page [this is found at the bottom of every page; MLA form
requires only the date of the most recent update]. The
Stephen Crane Society. Date you accessed the page. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/reviews.htm>.
Campbell, Donna. "Reviews of Crane's Works and Other Secondary
Sources." 30 May 2005. The
Stephen Crane Society. 20 November 2005. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/reviews.htm>
Depending on your instructor's preferences, you might also cite
this page as part of a scholarly project. Again, the example
the MLA example, this time for a scholarly project. Using
the information above, your Works Cited entry would look like
"Reviews of Crane's Works and Other Secondary Sources." The
Stephen Crane Society. Ed. Donna Campbell. 30 May 2005.
Washington State University. 20 November 2005. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/crane/reviews.htm>